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voluntary    音標拼音: [v'ɑləntɛri]
a. 自動的,自愿的,故意的,志愿的,非官辦的,自發的
n. 即興演奏,志愿者


adj 1: of your own free will or design; done by choice; not
forced or compelled; "man is a voluntary agent";
"participation was voluntary"; "voluntary manslaughter";
"voluntary generosity in times of disaster"; "voluntary
social workers"; "a voluntary confession" [ant:
{involuntary}, {nonvoluntary}, {unvoluntary}]
2: controlled by individual volition; "voluntary motions";
"voluntary muscles" [ant: {involuntary}]
n 1: (military) a person who freely enlists for service [synonym:
{volunteer}, {military volunteer}, {voluntary}] [ant:
{conscript}, {draftee}, {inductee}]
2: composition (often improvised) for a solo instrument
(especially solo organ) and not a regular part of a religious
service or musical performance

Voluntary \Vol"un*ta*ry\, a. [L. voluntarius, fr. voluntas will,
choice, from the root of velle to will, p. pr. volens; akin
to E. will: cf. F. volontaire, Of. also voluntaire. See
{Will}, v. t., and cf. {Benevolent}, {Volition},
1. Proceeding from the will; produced in or by an act of
[1913 Webster]

That sin or guilt pertains exclusively to voluntary
action is the true principle of orthodoxy. --N. W.
[1913 Webster]

2. Unconstrained by the interference of another; unimpelled
by the influence of another; not prompted or persuaded by
another; done of his or its own accord; spontaneous;
acting of one's self, or of itself; free.
[1913 Webster]

Our voluntary service he requires. --Milton.
[1913 Webster]

She fell to lust a voluntary prey. --Pope.
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3. Done by design or intention; intentional; purposed;
intended; not accidental; as, if a man kills another by
lopping a tree, it is not voluntary manslaughter.
[1913 Webster]

4. (Physiol.) Of or pertaining to the will; subject to, or
regulated by, the will; as, the voluntary motions of an
animal, such as the movements of the leg or arm (in
distinction from involuntary motions, such as the
movements of the heart); the voluntary muscle fibers,
which are the agents in voluntary motion.
[1913 Webster]

5. Endowed with the power of willing; as, man is a voluntary
[1913 Webster]

God did not work as a necessary, but a voluntary,
agent, intending beforehand, and decreeing with
himself, that which did outwardly proceed from him.
[1913 Webster]

6. (Law) Free; without compulsion; according to the will,
consent, or agreement, of a party; without consideration;
gratuitous; without valuable consideration.
[1913 Webster]

7. (Eccl.) Of or pertaining to voluntaryism; as, a voluntary
church, in distinction from an established or state
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{Voluntary affidavit} or {Voluntary oath} (Law), an affidavit
or oath made in an extrajudicial matter.

{Voluntary conveyance} (Law), a conveyance without valuable

{Voluntary escape} (Law), the escape of a prisoner by the
express consent of the sheriff.

{Voluntary jurisdiction}. (Eng. Eccl. Law) See {Contentious
jurisdiction}, under {Contentious}.

{Voluntary waste}. (Law) See {Waste}, n., 4.
[1913 Webster]

Syn: See {Spontaneous}.
[1913 Webster]

Voluntary \Vol"un*ta*ry\, n.; pl. {Voluntaries}.
1. One who engages in any affair of his own free will; a
volunteer. [R.] --Shak.
[1913 Webster]

2. (Mus.) A piece played by a musician, often extemporarily,
according to his fancy; specifically, an organ solo played
before, during, or after divine service.
[1913 Webster]

3. (Eccl.) One who advocates voluntaryism.
[1913 Webster]

104 Moby Thesaurus words for "voluntary":
Vorspiel, advised, aimed, aimed at, alternative, arbitrary,
autonomous, avant-propos, breakthrough, calculated, chosen,
conative, concert overture, conscious, considered, contemplated,
curtain raiser, deliberate, deliberated, descant, designed,
discretional, discretionary, disjunctive, dramatic overture,
elected, elective, envisaged, envisioned, exordium, foreword, free,
free will, front matter, frontispiece, gratuitous, independent,
innovation, intended, intentional, introduction, knowing, leap,
meant, meditated, nonmandatory, of design, offered,
operatic overture, optional, overture, planned, postulate,
preamble, preface, prefix, prefixture, preliminary, prelude,
premeditated, premise, presupposition, proem, proffered, projected,
prolegomena, prolegomenon, prolepsis, prologue, proposed, protasis,
purposed, purposeful, purposive, self-acting, self-active,
self-determined, self-determining, spontaneous, studied,
teleological, unasked, unbesought, unbidden, uncalled-for,
uncoerced, uncompelled, unconstrained, unforced, uninfluenced,
uninvited, unpressured, unprompted, unrequested, unrequired,
unsolicited, unsought, vamp, verse, volitional, volunteer, willful,
willing, witting

VOLUNTARY. Willingly; done with one's consent; negligently. Wolff, Sec. 5.
2. To render an act criminal or tortious it must be voluntary. If a
man, therefore, kill another without a will on his part, while engaged in
the performance of a lawful act, and having taken proper care to prevent it,
he is not guilty of any crime. And if he commit an injury to the person or
property of another, he is not liable for damages, unless the act has been
voluntary or through negligence, as when a collision takes place between two
ships without any fault in either. 2 Dobs. R. 83 3 Hagg. Adm. R. 320, 414.
3. When the crime or injury happens in the performance of an unlawful
act, the party will be considered as having acted voluntarily.
4. A negligent escape permitted by an officer having the custody of a
prisoner will be presumed as voluntary; under a declaration or count
charging the escape to have been voluntary, the party will, therefore, be
allowed to give a negligent escape in evidence. 1 Saund. 35, n. 1. So Will.

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