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radical    音標拼音: [r'ædəkəl] [r'ædɪkəl]
n. 激進分子,語根,基礎
a. 激進的,根本的,基本的,根的

激進分子,語根,基礎激進的,根本的,基本的,根的

radical
adj 1: (used of opinions and actions) far beyond the norm;
"extremist political views"; "radical opinions on
education"; "an ultra conservative" [synonym: {extremist},
{radical}, {ultra}]
2: markedly new or introducing radical change; "a revolutionary
discovery"; "radical political views" [synonym: {revolutionary},
{radical}]
3: arising from or going to the root or source; "a radical flaw
in the plan"
4: of or relating to or constituting a linguistic root; "a
radical verb form"
5: especially of leaves; located at the base of a plant or stem;
especially arising directly from the root or rootstock or a
root-like stem; "basal placentation"; "radical leaves" [synonym:
{radical}, {basal}] [ant: {cauline}]
n 1: (chemistry) two or more atoms bound together as a single
unit and forming part of a molecule [synonym: {group},
{radical}, {chemical group}]
2: an atom or group of atoms with at least one unpaired
electron; in the body it is usually an oxygen molecule that
has lost an electron and will stabilize itself by stealing an
electron from a nearby molecule; "in the body free radicals
are high-energy particles that ricochet wildly and damage
cells" [synonym: {free radical}, {radical}]
3: a person who has radical ideas or opinions
4: (mathematics) a quantity expressed as the root of another
quantity
5: a character conveying the lexical meaning of a logogram
6: (linguistics) the form of a word after all affixes are
removed; "thematic vowels are part of the stem" [synonym: {root},
{root word}, {base}, {stem}, {theme}, {radical}]

Radical \Rad"i*cal\ (r[a^]d"[i^]*kal), a. [F., fr. L. radicalis
having roots, fr. radix, -icis, a root. See {Radix}.]
1. Of or pertaining to the root; proceeding directly from the
root.
[1913 Webster]

2. Hence: Of or pertaining to the root or origin; reaching to
the center, to the foundation, to the ultimate sources, to
the principles, or the like; original; fundamental;
thorough-going; unsparing; extreme; as, radical evils;
radical reform; a radical party.
[1913 Webster]

The most determined exertions of that authority,
against them, only showed their radical
independence. --Burke.
[1913 Webster]

3. (Bot.)
(a) Belonging to, or proceeding from, the root of a plant;
as, radical tubers or hairs.
(b) Proceeding from a rootlike stem, or one which does not
rise above the ground; as, the radical leaves of the
dandelion and the sidesaddle flower.
[1913 Webster]

4. (Philol.) Relating, or belonging, to the root, or ultimate
source of derivation; as, a radical verbal form.
[1913 Webster]

5. (Math.) Of or pertaining to a radix or root; as, a radical
quantity; a radical sign. See below.
[1913 Webster]

{Radical axis of two circles}. (Geom.) See under {Axis}.

{Radical pitch}, the pitch or tone with which the utterance
of a syllable begins. --Rush.

{Radical quantity} (Alg.), a quantity to which the radical
sign is prefixed; specifically, a quantity which is not a
perfect power of the degree indicated by the radical sign;
a surd.

{Radical sign} (Math.), the sign [root] (originally the
letter r, the initial of radix, root), placed before any
quantity, denoting that its root is to be extracted; thus,
[root]a, or [root](a b). To indicate any other than the
square root, a corresponding figure is placed over the
sign; thus, [cuberoot]a, indicates the third or cube root
of a.

{Radical stress} (Elocution), force of utterance falling on
the initial part of a syllable or sound.

{Radical vessels} (Anat.), minute vessels which originate in
the substance of the tissues.
[1913 Webster]

Syn: Primitive; original; natural; underived; fundamental;
entire.

Usage: {Radical}, {Entire}. These words are frequently
employed as interchangeable in describing some marked
alteration in the condition of things. There is,
however, an obvious difference between them. A radical
cure, reform, etc., is one which goes to the root of
the thing in question; and it is entire, in the sense
that, by affecting the root, it affects in an
appropriate degree the entire body nourished by the
root; but it may not be entire in the sense of making
a change complete in its nature, as well as in its
extent. Hence, we speak of a radical change; a radical
improvement; radical differences of opinion; while an
entire change, an entire improvement, an entire
difference of opinion, might indicate more than was
actually intended. A certain change may be both
radical and entire, in every sense.
[1913 Webster]


Radical \Rad"i*cal\ (r[a^]d"[i^]*kal), n.
1. (Philol.)
(a) A primitive word; a radix, root, or simple, underived,
uncompounded word; an etymon.
(b) A primitive letter; a letter that belongs to the
radix.
[1913 Webster]

The words we at present make use of, and
understand only by common agreement, assume a
new air and life in the understanding, when you
trace them to their radicals, where you find
every word strongly stamped with nature; full of
energy, meaning, character, painting, and
poetry. --Cleland.
[1913 Webster]

2. (Politics) One who advocates radical changes in government
or social institutions, especially such changes as are
intended to level class inequalities; -- opposed to
conservative.
[1913 Webster]

In politics they [the Independents] were, to use the
phrase of their own time, "Root-and-Branch men," or,
to use the kindred phrase of our own, Radicals.
--Macaulay.
[1913 Webster]

3. (Chem.)
(a) A characteristic, essential, and fundamental
constituent of any compound; hence, sometimes, an
atom.
[1913 Webster]

As a general rule, the metallic atoms are basic
radicals, while the nonmetallic atoms are acid
radicals. --J. P. Cooke.
[1913 Webster]
(b) Specifically, a group of two or more atoms, not
completely saturated, which are so linked that their
union implies certain properties, and are conveniently
regarded as playing the part of a single atom; a
residue; -- called also a {compound radical}. Cf.
{Residue}.
[1913 Webster]

4. (Alg.) A radical quantity. See under {Radical}, a.
[1913 Webster]

An indicated root of a perfect power of the degree
indicated is not a radical but a rational quantity
under a radical form. --Davies &
Peck (Math.
Dict.)
[1913 Webster]

5. (Anat.) A radical vessel. See under {Radical}, a.
[1913 Webster]


Residue \Res"i*due\ (r?z"?-d?), n. [F. r['e]sidu, L. residuum,
fr. residuus that is left behind, remaining, fr. residere to
remain behind. See {Reside}, and cf. {Residuum}.]
1. That which remains after a part is taken, separated,
removed, or designated; remnant; remainder.
[1913 Webster]

The residue of them will I deliver to the sword.
--Jer. xv. 9.
[1913 Webster]

If church power had then prevailed over its victims,
not a residue of English liberty would have been
saved. --I. Taylor.
[1913 Webster]

2. (Law) That part of a testeator's estate wwhich is not
disposed of in his will by particular and special legacies
and devises, and which remains after payment of debts and
legacies.
[1913 Webster]

3. (Chem.) That which remains of a molecule after the removal
of a portion of its constituents; hence, an atom or group
regarded as a portion of a molecule; a {moiety} or
{group}; -- used as nearly equivalent to {radical}, but in
a more general sense.
[1913 Webster PJC]

Note: The term radical is sometimes restricted to groups
containing carbon, the term residue and {moiety} being
applied to the others.
[1913 Webster]

4. (Theory of Numbers) Any positive or negative number that
differs from a given number by a multiple of a given
modulus; thus, if 7 is the modulus, and 9 the given
number, the numbers -5, 2, 16, 23, etc., are residues.
[1913 Webster]

Syn: Rest; remainder; remnant; balance; residuum; remains;
leavings; relics.
[1913 Webster]

429 Moby Thesaurus words for "radical":
Bolshevik, Bolshevist, Fabian, Gospel side, IC analysis, Jacobin,
Kekule formula, Wobbly, ab ovo, aboriginal, absolute, accidence,
acid, acidity, advanced, affix, affixation, agent, agitator,
algorismic, algorithmic, aliquot, alkali, alkalinity,
all-embracing, all-encompassing, all-inclusive, all-out,
all-pervading, alloisomer, allomorph, anarchist, anarchistic,
anarcho-syndicalist, anion, antacid, arrowhead, at the height,
at the limit, atom, atomic cluster, basal, base, basement, basic,
basilar, basis, bearing wall, bed, bedding, bedrock, beginning,
benzene ring, biochemical, born, bottom, bound morpheme,
branched chain, broad, broad-based, broad-minded, cantorial side,
cardinal, cataclysmic, catastrophic, cation, central, chain,
character, chemical, chemical element, chromoisomer, clean, clear,
closed chain, commencement, communist, complete, compound,
compound radical, comprehensive, conception, congenital,
conjugation, constituent, constitutional, constitutive, consummate,
copolymer, corrective, counterclockwise, crucial, cuneiform,
cutting, cycle, decimal, declension, deep, deep-dyed, deep-seated,
demotic character, derivation, determinative, difference of form,
differential, digital, dimer, downright, drastic, dyad,
dyed-in-the-wool, egregious, element, elemental, elementary,
embryonic, emendatory, enclitic, entire, essential, even,
exhaustive, exponential, extreme, extreme left-winger, extremist,
extremistic, fanatic, fanatical, far out, figural, figurate,
figurative, finite, floor, flooring, fond, footing, formative,
foundation, foundational, fractional, free form, fundament,
fundamental, furthest, generative, genesis, genetic, germinal,
gradualistic, grammalogue, grass roots, greatest, ground, grounds,
groundwork, gut, hardpan, head, heavy chemicals, heptad,
heterocycle, hexad, hieratic symbol, hieroglyph, hieroglyphic,
hieroglyphics, high polymer, hiragana, homocycle, homopolymer,
hydracid, ideogram, ideograph, imaginary,
immediate constituent analysis, immoderate, impair, impossible,
in embryo, in ovo, inception, infinite, infix, infixation,
inflection, inherent, inorganic chemical, insurgent,
insurrectionary, insurrectionist, integral, intensive, intrinsic,
ion, irrational, isomer, kana, katakana, larboard, lattice, left,
left hand, left wing, left-hand, left-hand side, left-wing,
left-wing extremist, left-winger, left-wingish, leftist,
levorotatory, liberal, logarithmic, logogram, logograph,
logometric, lunatic fringe, macromolecule, material, meliorist,
melioristic, metamer, mild radical, mildly radical, militant,
molecule, monad, monomer, morph, morpheme, morphemic analysis,
morphemics, morphology, morphophonemics, most, natural, near,
near side, negative, neutralizer, nigh, nihilist, nihilistic,
nonacid, numeral, numerary, numerative, numeric, octad, odd,
of the essence, ogham, omnibus, omnipresent, ordinal, organic,
organic chemical, origin, original, origination, out-and-out,
outright, oxyacid, pair, paradigm, parlor Bolshevik, parlor pink,
pavement, pentad, perfect, pervasive, phonetic, phonetic symbol,
pictogram, pictograph, pink, pinko, plain, plumb, polymer, port,
port tack, portside, positive, possible, prefix, prefixation,
pregnant, primal, primary, prime, primeval, primitive, primordial,
principal, principle, pristine, proclitic, profound,
progressionist, progressist, progressive, progressivist,
protogenic, provenience, pseudoisomer, pure, rabid, radix,
rational, reagent, rebel, reciprocal, red, reformational,
reformative, reformatory, reformer, reformist, reformistic,
regular, revisional, revisionist, revisory, revolutional,
revolutionary, revolutionist, revulsionary, revulsive, ring,
riprap, rise, rock bottom, root, rudiment, rudimentary, rune,
sans-culotte, seat, secessionist, seminal, separatist, severe,
sheer, shorthand, side chain, sill, simple radical, sinister,
sinistral, sinistrocerebral, sinistrocular, sinistrogyrate,
sinistrorse, solid ground, solid rock, source, space-lattice, stem,
stereobate, stock, straight, straight chain, stylobate,
submultiple, substantial, substantive, substratum, substruction,
substructure, subversive, suffix, suffixation, sulfacid, surd,
sweeping, syndicalist, taproot, terra firma, tetrad, theme,
thorough, thoroughgoing, through-and-through, tolerant, too much,
total, transcendental, transilient, triad, trimer, ubiquitous,
ultra, ultra-ultra, ultraconservative, ultraist, ultraistic,
unconditional, underbuilding, undercarriage, undergirding,
underlying, underpinning, understruction, understructure,
universal, unmitigated, unqualified, unreserved, unrestricted,
utmost, utopian, utopist, utter, uttermost, veritable, verso,
vital, way out, wedge, wholesale, wide, word letter,
word-formation, wrong side, yippie, zealot



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