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privilege    音標拼音: [pr'ɪvlədʒ] [pr'ɪvlɪdʒ] [pr'ɪvɪlədʒ] [pr'ɪvɪlɪdʒ]
n. 特權,特別恩典,基本人權,特免
vt. 給與…特權,特免




n 1: a special advantage or immunity or benefit not enjoyed by
2: a right reserved exclusively by a particular person or group
(especially a hereditary or official right); "suffrage was
the prerogative of white adult males" [synonym: {prerogative},
{privilege}, {perquisite}, {exclusive right}]
3: (law) the right to refuse to divulge information obtained in
a confidential relationship
v 1: bestow a privilege upon [synonym: {privilege}, {favor},

Privilege \Priv"i*lege\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Privileged}; p.
pr. & vb. n. {Privileging}.] [Cf. F. privil['e]gier.]
[1913 Webster]
1. To grant some particular right or exemption to; to invest
with a peculiar right or immunity; to authorize; as, to
privilege representatives from arrest.
[1913 Webster]

To privilege dishonor in thy name. --Shak.
[1913 Webster]

2. To bring or put into a condition of privilege or exemption
from evil or danger; to exempt; to deliver.
[1913 Webster]

He took this place for sanctuary, And it shall
privilege him from your hands. --Shak.
[1913 Webster]

Privilege \Priv"i*lege\, n. [F. privil[`e]ge, L. privilegium an
ordinance or law against or in favor of an individual; privus
private lex, legis, law. See {Private}, and {Legal}.]
[1913 Webster]
1. A peculiar benefit, advantage, or favor; a right or
immunity not enjoyed by others or by all; special
enjoyment of a good, or exemption from an evil or burden;
a prerogative; advantage; franchise.
[1913 Webster]

He pleads the legal privilege of a Roman.
[1913 Webster]

The privilege birthright was a double portion.
[1913 Webster]

A people inheriting privileges, franchises, and
liberties. --Burke.
[1913 Webster]

2. (Stockbroker's Cant) See {Call}, {Put}, {Spread}, etc.
[1913 Webster]

{Breach of privilege}. See under {Breach}.

{Question of privilege} (Parliamentary practice), a question
which concerns the security of a member of a legislative
body in his special privileges as such.

{Water privilege}, the advantage of having machinery driven
by a stream, or a place affording such advantage. [ U. S.]

{Writ of privilege} (Law), a writ to deliver a privileged
person from custody when arrested in a civil suit.
[1913 Webster]

Syn: Prerogative; immunity; franchise; right; claim; liberty.

Usage: {Privilege}, {Prerogative}. Privilege, among the
Romans, was something conferred upon an individual by
a private law; and hence, it denotes some peculiar
benefit or advantage, some right or immunity, not
enjoyed by the world at large. Prerogative, among the
Romans, was the right of voting first; and, hence, it
denotes a right of precedence, or of doing certain
acts, or enjoying certain privileges, to the exclusion
of others. It is the privilege of a member of Congress
not to be called in question elsewhere for words
uttered in debate. It is the prerogative of the
president to nominate judges and executive officers.
It is the privilege of a Christian child to be
instructed in the true religion. It is the prerogative
of a parent to govern and direct his children.
[1913 Webster]

78 Moby Thesaurus words for "privilege":
accomplishment, advantage, allowance, appanage, ascendancy,
authority, authorization, authorize, benefit, birthright,
blank check, boon, carte blanche, certificate, certify, charter,
concession, consent, copyright, deanship, diplomatic immunity,
discharge, dispensation, empower, enable, enfranchise, entitle,
excellence, exception, exemption, favor, franchise, freedom,
give official sanction, give power, grant, greatness, immunity,
incomparability, indulgence, inimitability, lead, leave, legalize,
legislative immunity, legitimize, liberty, license, majority,
one-upmanship, patent, permission, perquisite, precedence,
predominance, predomination, preeminence, preponderance,
prepotence, prepotency, prerogative, prestige, priority, ratify,
release, right, right-of-way, sanction, seniority, skill,
special favor, success, superiority, transcendence, transcendency,
validate, virtuosity, warrant

PRIVILEGE, mar. law. An allowance to the master of a ship of the general
nature with primage, (q.v.) being compensation or rather a gratuity
customary in certain trades, and which the law assumes to be a fair and
equitable allowance, because the contract on both sides is made under the
knowledge such usage by the parties. 3 Chit. Com. Law, 431.

PRIVILEGE, rights. This word, taken its active sense, is a particular law,
or a particular disposition of the law, which grants certain special
prerogatives to some persons, contrary to common right. In its passive
sense, it is the same prerogative granted by the same particular law.
2. Examples of privilege may be found in all systems of law; members
of congress and of the several legislatures, during a certain time, parties
and witnesses while attending court; and coming to and returning from the
same; electors, while going to the election, remaining on the ground, or
returning from the same, are all privileged from arrest, except for treason,
felony or breach of the peace.
3. Privileges from arrest for civil cases are either general and
absolute, or limited and qualified as to time or place.
4.-1. In the first class may be mentioned ambassadors, and their
servants, when the debt or duty has been contracted by the latter since they
entered into the service of such ambassador; insolvent debtors duly
discharged under the insolvent laws; in some places, as in Pennsylvania,
women for any debt by them contracted; and in general, executors and
administrators, when sued in their representative character, though they
have been held to bail. 2 Binn. 440.
5.-2. In the latter class may be placed, 1st. Members of congress this
privilege is strictly personal, and is not only his own, or that of his
constituent, but also that of the house of which he is a member, which every
man is bound to know, and must take notice of. Jeff. Man. Sec. 3; 2 Wils. R.
151; Com. Dig. Parliament, D. 17. The time during which the privilege
extends includes all the period of the session of congress, and a reasonable
time for going to, and returning from the seat of government. Jeff. Man.
Sec. 3; Story, Const. Sec. 856 to 862; 1 Kent, Com. 221; 1 Dall. R. 296. The
same privilege is extended to the members of the different state
6.-2d. Electors under the constitution and laws of the United States,
or of any state, are protected from arrest for any civil cause, or for any
crime except treason, felony, or a breach of the peace, eundo, morando, et
redeundo, that is, going to, staying at, or returning from the election.
7.-3d. Militia men, while engaged in the performance of military duty,
under the laws, and eundo, morando et redeundo.
8.-4th. All persons who, either necessarily or of right are attending
any court or forum of justice, whether as judge, juror, party interested or
witness, and eundo, morando et redeundo. See 6 Mass. R, 245; 4 Dall. R. 329,
487; 2 John. R. 294; 1 South. R. 366; 11 Mass. R. 11; 3 Cowen, R. 381; 1
Pet. C. C. R. 41.
9. Ambassadors are wholly exempt from arrest for civil or criminal
Vide Ambassador. See, generally, Bac. Ab. h.t.; 2 Rolle's Ab. 272; 2
Lilly's Reg. 369; Brownl. 15; 13 Mass. R. 288; 1 Binn. R. 77; 1 H. Bl. 686;
Bouv. Inst. Index, h.t.

PRIVILEGE, civil law. A right which the nature of a debt gives to a
creditor, and which entitles him to be preferred before other creditors.
Louis. Code, art. 3153; Dict. de Juris. art. Privilege: Domat, Lois Civ.
liv. 2, t. 1, s. 4, n. 1.
2. Creditors of the same rank of privileges, are paid in concurrence,
that is, on an equal footing. Privileges may exist either in movables, or
immovables, or both at once. They are general or special, on certain
movables. The debts which are privileged on all the movables in general, are
the following, which are paid in this order. 1. Funeral charges. 2. Law
charges, which are such as are occasioned by the prosecution of a suit
before the courts. But this name applies more particularly to costs, which
the party cast has to pay to the party gaining the cause. It is in favor of
these only that the law grants the privilege. 3. Charges, of whatever
nature, occasioned by the last sickness, concurrently among those to whom
they are due; see Last sickness. 4. The wages of servants for the year past,
and so much as is due for the current year. 5. Supplies of provisions made
to the debtor or his family during the last six months, by retail dealers,
such as bakers, butchers, grocers; and during the last year by keepers of
boarding houses and taverns. 6. The salaries of clerks, secretaries, and
other persons of that kind. 7. Dotal rights, due to wives by their husbands.
3. The debts which are privileged on particular movables, are, 1. The
debt of a workman or artisan for the price of his labor, on the movable
which he has repaired, or made, if the thing continues still in his
possession. 2. That debt on the pledge which is in the creditor's
possession. 3. The carrier's charges and accessory expenses on the thing
carried. 4. The price due on movable effects, if they are yet in the
possession of the purchaser; and the like. See Lien.
4. Creditors have a privilege on immovables, or real estate in some,
cases, of which the following are instances: 1. The vendor on the estate by
him sold, for the payment of the price, or so much of it as is due whether
it be sold on or without a credit. 2. Architects and undertakers,
bricklayers and other workmen employed in constructing, rebuilding or
repairing houses, buildings, or making other works on such houses,
buildings, or works by them constructed, rebuilt or repaired. 3. Those who
have supplied the owner with materials for the construction or repair of an
edifice or other work, which he has erected or repaired out of these
materials, on the edifice or other work constructed or repaired. Louis.
Code, art. 3216. See, generally, as to privilege. Louis. Code, tit. 21; Code
Civ. tit. 18; Dict. de Juris. tit. Privilege; Lien; Last sickness;

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