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hard    音標拼音: [h'ɑrd]
a.
難的,艱苦的,堅硬的,硬的,堅固的,猛烈的,艱難的,結實的,困難的

難的,艱苦的,堅硬的,硬的,堅固的,猛烈的,艱難的,結實的,困難的

hard
硬的

hard


hard
adv 1: with effort or force or vigor; "the team played hard";
"worked hard all day"; "pressed hard on the lever"; "hit
the ball hard"; "slammed the door hard"
2: with firmness; "held hard to the railing" [synonym: {hard},
{firmly}]
3: earnestly or intently; "thought hard about it"; "stared hard
at the accused"
4: causing great damage or hardship; "industries hit hard by the
depression"; "she was severely affected by the bank's
failure" [synonym: {hard}, {severely}]
5: slowly and with difficulty; "prejudices die hard"
6: indulging excessively; "he drank heavily" [synonym: {heavily},
{intemperately}, {hard}] [ant: {lightly}]
7: into a solid condition; "concrete that sets hard within a few
hours"
8: very near or close in space or time; "it stands hard by the
railroad tracks"; "they were hard on his heels"; "a strike
followed hard upon the plant's opening"
9: with pain or distress or bitterness; "he took the rejection
very hard"
10: to the full extent possible; all the way; "hard alee"; "the
ship went hard astern"; "swung the wheel hard left"
adj 1: not easy; requiring great physical or mental effort to
accomplish or comprehend or endure; "a difficult task";
"nesting places on the cliffs are difficult of access";
"difficult times"; "why is it so hard for you to keep a
secret?" [synonym: {difficult}, {hard}] [ant: {easy}]
2: dispassionate; "took a hard look"; "a hard bargainer"; [ant:
{soft}]
3: resisting weight or pressure [ant: {soft}]
4: very strong or vigorous; "strong winds"; "a hard left to the
chin"; "a knockout punch"; "a severe blow" [synonym: {hard},
{knockout}, {severe}]
5: characterized by effort to the point of exhaustion;
especially physical effort; "worked their arduous way up the
mining valley"; "a grueling campaign"; "hard labor"; "heavy
work"; "heavy going"; "spent many laborious hours on the
project"; "set a punishing pace" [synonym: {arduous},
{backbreaking}, {grueling}, {gruelling}, {hard}, {heavy},
{laborious}, {operose}, {punishing}, {toilsome}]
6: produced without vibration of the vocal cords; "unvoiced
consonants such as `p' and `k' and `s'" [synonym: {unvoiced},
{voiceless}, {surd}, {hard}] [ant: {soft}, {sonant},
{voiced}]
7: (of light) transmitted directly from a pointed light source
[synonym: {hard}, {concentrated}] [ant: {diffuse}, {diffused},
{soft}]
8: (of speech sounds); produced with the back of the tongue
raised toward or touching the velum; "Russian distinguished
between hard consonants and palatalized or soft consonants"
[ant: {soft}]
9: given to excessive indulgence of bodily appetites especially
for intoxicating liquors; "a hard drinker" [synonym:
{intemperate}, {hard}, {heavy}]
10: being distilled rather than fermented; having a high
alcoholic content; "hard liquor" [synonym: {hard}, {strong}]
11: unfortunate or hard to bear; "had hard luck"; "a tough
break" [synonym: {hard}, {tough}]
12: dried out; "hard dry rolls left over from the day before"

Hard \Hard\ (h[aum]rd), a. [Compar. {Harder} (-[~e]r); superl.
{Hardest}.] [OE. hard, heard, AS. heard; akin to OS. & D.
hard, G. hart, OHG. herti, harti, Icel. har[eth]r, Dan.
haard, Sw. h[*a]rd, Goth. hardus, Gr. kraty`s strong,
ka`rtos, kra`tos, strength, and also to E. -ard, as in
coward, drunkard, -crat, -cracy in autocrat, democracy; cf.
Skr. kratu strength, k[.r] to do, make. Cf. {Hardy}.]
1. Not easily penetrated, cut, or separated into parts; not
yielding to pressure; firm; solid; compact; -- applied to
material bodies, and opposed to {soft}; as, hard wood;
hard flesh; a hard apple.
[1913 Webster]

2. Difficult, mentally or judicially; not easily apprehended,
decided, or resolved; as a hard problem.
[1913 Webster]

The hard causes they brought unto Moses. --Ex.
xviii. 26.
[1913 Webster]

In which are some things hard to be understood. --2
Peter iii. 16.
[1913 Webster]

3. Difficult to accomplish; full of obstacles; laborious;
fatiguing; arduous; as, a hard task; a disease hard to
cure.
[1913 Webster]

4. Difficult to resist or control; powerful.
[1913 Webster]

The stag was too hard for the horse. --L'Estrange.
[1913 Webster]

A power which will be always too hard for them.
--Addison.
[1913 Webster]

5. Difficult to bear or endure; not easy to put up with or
consent to; hence, severe; rigorous; oppressive;
distressing; unjust; grasping; as, a hard lot; hard times;
hard fare; a hard winter; hard conditions or terms.
[1913 Webster]

I never could drive a hard bargain. --Burke.
[1913 Webster]

6. Difficult to please or influence; stern; unyielding;
obdurate; unsympathetic; unfeeling; cruel; as, a hard
master; a hard heart; hard words; a hard character.
[1913 Webster]

7. Not easy or agreeable to the taste; harsh; stiff; rigid;
ungraceful; repelling; as, a hard style.
[1913 Webster]

Figures harder than even the marble itself.
--Dryden.
[1913 Webster]

8. Rough; acid; sour, as liquors; as, hard cider.
[1913 Webster]

9. (Pron.) Abrupt or explosive in utterance; not aspirated,
sibilated, or pronounced with a gradual change of the
organs from one position to another; -- said of certain
consonants, as c in came, and g in go, as distinguished
from the same letters in center, general, etc.
[1913 Webster]

10. Wanting softness or smoothness of utterance; harsh; as, a
hard tone.
[1913 Webster]

11. (Painting)
(a) Rigid in the drawing or distribution of the figures;
formal; lacking grace of composition.
(b) Having disagreeable and abrupt contrasts in the
coloring or light and shade.
[1913 Webster]

{Hard cancer}, {Hard case}, etc. See under {Cancer}, {Case},
etc.

{Hard clam}, or {Hard-shelled clam} (Zool.), the quahog.

{Hard coal}, anthracite, as distinguished from {bituminous
coal} ({soft coal}).

{Hard and fast}. (Naut.) See under {Fast}.

{Hard finish} (Arch.), a smooth finishing coat of hard fine
plaster applied to the surface of rough plastering.

{Hard lines}, hardship; difficult conditions.

{Hard money}, coin or specie, as distinguished from paper
money.

{Hard oyster} (Zool.), the northern native oyster. [Local, U.
S.]

{Hard pan}, the hard stratum of earth lying beneath the soil;
hence, figuratively, the firm, substantial, fundamental
part or quality of anything; as, the hard pan of
character, of a matter in dispute, etc. See {Pan}.

{Hard rubber}. See under {Rubber}.

{Hard solder}. See under {Solder}.

{Hard water}, water, which contains lime or some mineral
substance rendering it unfit for washing. See {Hardness},
3.

{Hard wood}, wood of a solid or hard texture; as walnut, oak,
ash, box, and the like, in distinction from pine, poplar,
hemlock, etc.

{In hard condition}, in excellent condition for racing;
having firm muscles; -- said of race horses.

Syn: Solid; arduous; powerful; trying; unyielding; stubborn;
stern; flinty; unfeeling; harsh; difficult; severe;
obdurate; rigid. See {Solid}, and {Arduous}.
[1913 Webster]


Hard \Hard\, adv. [OE. harde, AS. hearde.]
1. With pressure; with urgency; hence, diligently; earnestly.
[1913 Webster]

And prayed so hard for mercy from the prince.
--Dryden.
[1913 Webster]

My father
Is hard at study; pray now, rest yourself. --Shak.
[1913 Webster]

2. With difficulty; as, the vehicle moves hard.
[1913 Webster]

3. Uneasily; vexatiously; slowly. --Shak.
[1913 Webster]

4. So as to raise difficulties. "The question is hard set."
--Sir T. Browne.
[1913 Webster]

5. With tension or strain of the powers; violently; with
force; tempestuously; vehemently; vigorously;
energetically; as, to press, to blow, to rain hard; hence,
rapidly; nimbly; as, to run hard.
[1913 Webster]

6. Close or near.
[1913 Webster]

Whose house joined hard to the synagogue. --Acts
xviii. 7.
[1913 Webster]

{Hard by}, {near by}; close at hand; not far off. "Hard by a
cottage chimney smokes." --Milton.

{Hard pushed}, {Hard run}, greatly pressed; as, he was hard
pushed or hard run for time, money, etc. [Colloq.]

{Hard up}, closely pressed by want or necessity; without
money or resources; as, hard up for amusements. [Slang]
[1913 Webster]

Note: Hard in nautical language is often joined to words of
command to the helmsman, denoting that the order should
be carried out with the utmost energy, or that the helm
should be put, in the direction indicated, to the
extreme limit, as, Hard aport! Hard astarboard! Hard
alee! Hard aweather! Hard up!
Hard is also often used in composition with a
participle; as, hard-baked; hard-earned; hard-featured;
hard-working; hard-won.
[1913 Webster]


Hard \Hard\ (h[aum]rd), v. t.
To harden; to make hard. [Obs.] --Chaucer.
[1913 Webster]


Hard \Hard\, n.
A ford or passage across a river or swamp.
[1913 Webster]

686 Moby Thesaurus words for "hard":
Herculean, Philistine, about, absolute, abstruse, accented, acerb,
acerbic, acrid, acrimonious, actively, acute, adamant, adamantine,
addictive, adverse, afflictive, agonizing, agonizingly, alcoholic,
all but, almost, along toward, alveolar, amaroidal, anesthetic,
angry, antagonistic, apical, apico-alveolar, apico-dental,
approximately, ardent, ardently, arduous, arduously, around,
articulated, assiduous, assiduously, assimilated, astringent,
at close quarters, at hand, atrocious, austere, avid, back,
backbreaking, bad, badly, baffling, bankrupt, bare, barytone,
bec et ongles, beefy, beyond one, bilabial, biting, bitter,
bitter as gall, bleak, bloodless, blunt, bony, bothersome,
bouncing, bowelless, brazen, broad, broke, brutal, brutish, bulky,
burdensome, businesslike, busted, cacuminal, calamitous,
calculating, callous, calloused, carefully, cartilaginous,
case-hardened, cast-iron, caustic, cement, cemental, central,
cerebral, checked, chewy, clear, close, close about, close at hand,
close by, close-knit, close-textured, close-woven, coarse,
cohesive, cold, cold of heart, coldblooded, coldhearted, compact,
compacted, complex, complicated, compressed, concentrated,
concrete, condensed, conditioning, conflicting, congested,
conscienceless, conscientious, conscientiously, consolidated,
consonant, consonantal, continuant, contrary, cool, coriaceous,
corneous, counter, counteractive, crabbed, crammed, crammed full,
cramp, cramping, critical, crowded, cruel, dark, deep, deeply,
definite, delicate, demanding, dense, dental, despotic,
determinedly, detrimental, devastating, devoted, devotedly,
dictatorial, difficile, difficult, diligent, diligently,
disastrous, dispassionate, dissimilated, distinct, distressing,
distressingly, dog-eat-dog, dogged, doggedly, dorsal, doughty,
dour, down-to-earth, dull, durable, dure, dynamically, eager,
eagerly, earnestly, effortful, effortfully, enduring, energetic,
energetically, enigmatic, exacting, excruciating, exhausting,
factual, fast by, fatiguing, fervent, fibrous, firm, flat,
flinthearted, flintlike, flinty, forceful, forcefully, forcible,
forcibly, forcy, formidable, front, full-blooded, full-strength,
fundamentalist, garbled, genuine, glide, glossal, glottal, gluey,
gnawing, granitelike, granitic, grave, grievous, grim, grinding,
griping, gristly, gutsy, guttural, gutty, habit-forming,
habituating, hairy, hale, hammer and tongs, hard as nails, hard by,
hard of heart, hard to understand, hard up, hard-bitten,
hard-boiled, hard-core, hard-earned, hard-fought, hard-nosed,
hard-set, hardened, hardheaded, hardhearted, hardworking, hardy,
harmful, harrowing, harsh, harshly, heart and soul, heartily,
heartless, hearty, heavy, hefty, hereabout, hereabouts, hidebound,
high, horny, hostile, hurtful, hurting, husky, ill, immovable,
immutable, impassible, impecunious, impenetrable, impenitent,
impermeable, impervious, implacable, impliable, impoverished,
impregnable, in opposition, in spitting distance, in the red,
inclement, incomprehensible, incontestable, incontrovertible,
indefatigable, indefatigably, indigent, indisputable, indurate,
indurated, industrious, industriously, inelastic, ineluctable,
inescapable, inexorable, inflexible, inhuman, inimical,
inscrutable, insensate, insensitive, insolent, insoluble,
intemperate, intense, intensely, intent, intently, intonated,
intractable, intransigent, intricate, inured, involved, irksome,
iron, iron-hard, ironbound, ironclad, ironhanded, ironlike,
irreconcilable, jam-packed, jammed, jawbreaking, jumbled, keen,
knotted, knotty, labial, labiodental, labiovelar, labored,
laborious, laboriously, lapideous, lasting, lateral, lax,
leatherlike, leathery, light, lingual, liquid, lithoid, lithoidal,
lost to shame, low, lusty, magisterial, manfully, marble,
marblelike, massive, matter-of-fact, mean, merciless, methodical,
mid, mightily, mighty, miserable, monophthongal, most, much,
muscle-bound, muted, narrow, nasal, nasalized, near, near at hand,
nearabout, nearabouts, nearby, nervy, never idle, nigh, nigh about,
no picnic, nonporous, not easy, not far, obdurate, obfuscated,
obscure, obscured, obstinate, occlusive, onerous, only a step,
open, operose, operosely, opposed, opposing, opposite, oppressive,
orthodox, osseous, overtechnical, oxytone, pachydermatous, packed,
painful, painfully, palatal, palatalized, paroxysmal, penetrating,
penniless, perplexed, perplexing, perseveringly, persistent,
persistently, petrified, pharyngeal, pharyngealized, phonemic,
phonetic, phonic, physiologically addictive, piercing, pitch,
pitched, pitiless, plain, poignant, poor, positive, posttonic,
potent, poverty-stricken, powerful, practical, practically,
pragmatic, procrustean, profound, proof against,
psychologically addictive, puissant, pungent, purist, puristic,
puritan, puritanic, puzzling, racking, real, realistic,
red-blooded, relentless, relentlessly, remorseless, resistant,
resistive, retroflex, rigid, rigorist, rigoristic, rigorous,
robust, robustious, rock-ribbed, rockbound, rocklike, rocky, ropy,
rough, rounded, rugged, ruthless, savage, scabrous, scrambled,
searching, seared, sedulous, sedulously, semivowel, serious,
serried, set, set with thorns, severe, severely, shameless, sharp,
shooting, sinewy, sinister, slavish, sleepless, sober, soft, solid,
solidified, sonant, sound, sour, spasmatic, spasmic, spasmodic,
spiny, spiritedly, spirituous, stabbing, stable, stalwart, stark,
steadfastly, steady, steeled against, steellike, steely, steep,
stern, sticky, stiff, stinging, stonelike, stony, stonyhearted,
stopped, stout, straight, straightforward, straightlaced,
straining, straitlaced, strapping, strenuous, strenuously,
stressed, stressful, strict, stringent, stringy, strong,
strong as brandy, strong as strong, strong-willed, stubborn,
studiously, sturdy, substantial, surd, sure-enough, syllabic,
systematic, tangled, tart, tenacious, tense, terrible,
the hard way, thereabout, thereabouts, thick, thick-growing,
thick-skinned, thickset, thorny, throaty, ticklish, tireless,
tiring, toilsome, toilsomely, tonal, tonic, tooth and nail,
tormenting, torturous, tough, tough as leather, tricky,
troublesome, troublous, trying, twangy, tyrannical, unabject,
unaccented, unaffected, unalterable, unavoidable, unbending,
unblushing, unchangeable, uncompassionate, uncompassioned,
uncompromising, uncontrite, undeniable, unemotional, unfalteringly,
unfavorable, unfeeling, unflagging, unforgiving, unfriendly,
ungentle, ungiving, unidealistic, unkind, unmelted, unmerciful,
unmoved, unnatural, unpitiful, unpitying, unpleasant,
unquestionable, unrelenting, unremitting, unremorseful,
unrepentant, unrepenting, unresponsive, unrounded, unsentimental,
unsleeping, unsoftened, unsolvable, unsparing, unstressed,
unsympathetic, unsympathizing, untiring, untiringly, untouched,
untoward, unvarnished, unwearied, unyielding, uphill, urgently,
vehement, velar, verifiable, vigorous, vigorously, vinous,
violently, viscid, viscose, viscous, vocalic, vocoid, voiced,
voiceless, vowel, vowellike, weak, wearing, wearisome, wearying,
well-built, well-constructed, well-defined, well-founded,
well-grounded, well-made, well-nigh, wicked, wide, winy, wiry,
with a kick, with a will, with effort, within call, within earshot,
within hearing, within reach, without mercy, wretched, zealous,
zealously



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