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ground    音標拼音: [gr'ɑʊnd]
n. 地面,場地,陣地,基礎;理由,根據,原因
v. 把…放在地上,建立,以…為基礎

地面,場地,陣地,基礎;理由,根據,原因把…放在地上,建立,以…為基礎

ground
接地


ground
快速接地 Q-G

ground
地 接地

ground
n 1: the solid part of the earth's surface; "the plane turned
away from the sea and moved back over land"; "the earth
shook for several minutes"; "he dropped the logs on the
ground" [synonym: {land}, {dry land}, {earth}, {ground}, {solid
ground}, {terra firma}]
2: a rational motive for a belief or action; "the reason that
war was declared"; "the grounds for their declaration" [synonym:
{reason}, {ground}]
3: the loose soft material that makes up a large part of the
land surface; "they dug into the earth outside the church"
[synonym: {earth}, {ground}]
4: a relation that provides the foundation for something; "they
were on a friendly footing"; "he worked on an interim basis"
[synonym: {footing}, {basis}, {ground}]
5: a position to be won or defended in battle (or as if in
battle); "they gained ground step by step"; "they fought to
regain the lost ground"
6: the part of a scene (or picture) that lies behind objects in
the foreground; "he posed her against a background of rolling
hills" [synonym: {background}, {ground}]
7: material in the top layer of the surface of the earth in
which plants can grow (especially with reference to its
quality or use); "the land had never been plowed"; "good
agricultural soil" [synonym: {land}, {ground}, {soil}]
8: a relatively homogeneous percept extending back of the figure
on which attention is focused [ant: {figure}]
9: a connection between an electrical device and a large
conducting body, such as the earth (which is taken to be at
zero voltage) [synonym: {ground}, {earth}]
10: (art) the surface (as a wall or canvas) prepared to take the
paint for a painting
11: the first or preliminary coat of paint or size applied to a
surface [synonym: {flat coat}, {ground}, {primer}, {priming},
{primer coat}, {priming coat}, {undercoat}]
v 1: fix firmly and stably; "anchor the lamppost in concrete"
[synonym: {anchor}, {ground}]
2: confine or restrict to the ground; "After the accident, they
grounded the plane and the pilot"
3: place or put on the ground
4: instruct someone in the fundamentals of a subject
5: bring to the ground; "the storm grounded the ship" [synonym:
{ground}, {strand}, {run aground}]
6: hit or reach the ground [synonym: {ground}, {run aground}]
7: throw to the ground in order to stop play and avoid being
tackled behind the line of scrimmage
8: hit a groundball; "he grounded to the second baseman"
9: hit onto the ground
10: cover with a primer; apply a primer to [synonym: {prime},
{ground}, {undercoat}]
11: connect to a ground; "ground the electrical connections for
safety reasons"
12: use as a basis for; found on; "base a claim on some
observation" [synonym: {establish}, {base}, {ground}, {found}]

ground \ground\ (ground), n. [OE. ground, grund, AS. grund; akin
to D. grond, OS., G., Sw., & Dan. grund, Icel. grunnr bottom,
Goth. grundus (in composition); perh. orig. meaning, dust,
gravel, and if so perh. akin to E. grind.]
1. The surface of the earth; the outer crust of the globe, or
some indefinite portion of it.
[1913 Webster]

There was not a man to till the ground. --Gen. ii.
5.
[1913 Webster]

The fire ran along upon the ground. --Ex. ix. 23.
Hence: A floor or pavement supposed to rest upon the
earth.
[1913 Webster]

2. Any definite portion of the earth's surface; region;
territory; country. Hence: A territory appropriated to, or
resorted to, for a particular purpose; the field or place
of action; as, a hunting or fishing ground; a play ground.
[1913 Webster]

From . . . old Euphrates, to the brook that parts
Egypt from Syrian ground. --Milton.
[1913 Webster]

3. Land; estate; possession; field; esp. (pl.), the gardens,
lawns, fields, etc., belonging to a homestead; as, the
grounds of the estate are well kept.
[1913 Webster]

Thy next design is on thy neighbor's grounds.
--Dryden. 4.
[1913 Webster]

4. The basis on which anything rests; foundation. Hence: The
foundation of knowledge, belief, or conviction; a premise,
reason, or datum; ultimate or first principle; cause of
existence or occurrence; originating force or agency; as,
the ground of my hope.
[1913 Webster]

5. (Paint. & Decorative Art)
(a) That surface upon which the figures of a composition
are set, and which relieves them by its plainness,
being either of one tint or of tints but slightly
contrasted with one another; as, crimson Bowers on a
white ground. See {Background}, {Foreground}, and
{Middle-ground}.
(b) In sculpture, a flat surface upon which figures are
raised in relief.
(c) In point lace, the net of small meshes upon which the
embroidered pattern is applied; as, Brussels ground.
See {Brussels lace}, under {Brussels}.
[1913 Webster]

6. (Etching) A gummy composition spread over the surface of a
metal to be etched, to prevent the acid from eating except
where an opening is made by the needle.
[1913 Webster]

7. (Arch.) One of the pieces of wood, flush with the
plastering, to which moldings, etc., are attached; --
usually in the plural.
[1913 Webster]

Note: Grounds are usually put up first and the plastering
floated flush with them.
[1913 Webster]

8. (Mus.)
(a) A composition in which the bass, consisting of a few
bars of independent notes, is continually repeated to
a varying melody.
(b) The tune on which descants are raised; the plain song.
--Moore (Encyc.).
[1913 Webster]

On that ground I'll build a holy descant.
--Shak.
[1913 Webster]

9. (Elec.) A conducting connection with the earth, whereby
the earth is made part of an electrical circuit.
[1913 Webster]

10. pl. Sediment at the bottom of liquors or liquids; dregs;
lees; feces; as, coffee grounds.
[1913 Webster]

11. The pit of a theater. [Obs.] --B. Jonson.
[1913 Webster]

{Ground angling}, angling with a weighted line without a
float.

{Ground annual} (Scots Law), an estate created in land by a
vassal who instead of selling his land outright reserves
an annual ground rent, which becomes a perpetual charge
upon the land.

{Ground ash}. (Bot.) See {Groutweed}.

{Ground bailiff} (Mining), a superintendent of mines.
--Simmonds.

{Ground bait}, bits of bread, boiled barley or worms, etc.,
thrown into the water to collect the fish, --Wallon.

{Ground bass} or {Ground base} (Mus.), fundamental base; a
fundamental base continually repeated to a varied melody.


{Ground beetle} (Zool.), one of numerous species of
carnivorous beetles of the family {Carabid[ae]}, living
mostly in burrows or under stones, etc.

{Ground chamber}, a room on the ground floor.

{Ground cherry}. (Bot.)
(a) A genus ({Physalis}) of herbaceous plants having an
inflated calyx for a seed pod: esp., the strawberry
tomato ({Physalis Alkekengi}). See {Alkekengl}.
(b) A European shrub ({Prunus Cham[ae]cerasus}), with
small, very acid fruit.

{Ground cuckoo}. (Zool.) See {Chaparral cock}.

{Ground cypress}. (Bot.) See {Lavender cotton}.

{Ground dove} (Zool.), one of several small American pigeons
of the genus {Columbigallina}, esp. {C. passerina} of the
Southern United States, Mexico, etc. They live chiefly on
the ground.

{Ground fish} (Zool.), any fish which constantly lives on the
botton of the sea, as the sole, turbot, halibut.

{Ground floor}, the floor of a house most nearly on a level
with the ground; -- called also in America, but not in
England, the {first floor}.

{Ground form} (Gram.), the stem or basis of a word, to which
the other parts are added in declension or conjugation. It
is sometimes, but not always, the same as the root.

{Ground furze} (Bot.), a low slightly thorny, leguminous
shrub ({Ononis arvensis}) of Europe and Central Asia,; --
called also {rest-harrow}.

{Ground game}, hares, rabbits, etc., as distinguished from
winged game.

{Ground hele} (Bot.), a perennial herb ({Veronica
officinalis}) with small blue flowers, common in Europe
and America, formerly thought to have curative properties.


{Ground of the heavens} (Astron.), the surface of any part of
the celestial sphere upon which the stars may be regarded
as projected.

{Ground hemlock} (Bot.), the yew ({Taxus baccata} var.
Canadensisi) of eastern North America, distinguished from
that of Europe by its low, straggling stems.

{Ground hog}. (Zool.)
(a) The woodchuck or American marmot ({Arctomys monax}).
See {Woodchuck}.
(b) The aardvark.

{Ground hold} (Naut.), ground tackle. [Obs.] --Spenser.

{Ground ice}, ice formed at the bottom of a body of water
before it forms on the surface.

{Ground ivy}. (Bot.) A trailing plant; alehoof. See {Gill}.


{Ground joist}, a joist for a basement or ground floor; a.
sleeper.

{Ground lark} (Zool.), the European pipit. See {Pipit}.

{Ground laurel} (Bot.). See {Trailing arbutus}, under
{Arbutus}.

{Ground line} (Descriptive Geom.), the line of intersection
of the horizontal and vertical planes of projection.

{Ground liverwort} (Bot.), a flowerless plant with a broad
flat forking thallus and the fruit raised on peduncled and
radiated receptacles ({Marchantia polymorpha}).

{Ground mail}, in Scotland, the fee paid for interment in a
churchyard.

{Ground mass} (Geol.), the fine-grained or glassy base of a
rock, in which distinct crystals of its constituents are
embedded.

{Ground parrakeet} (Zool.), one of several Australian
parrakeets, of the genera {Callipsittacus} and
{Geopsittacus}, which live mainly upon the ground.

{Ground pearl} (Zool.), an insect of the family {Coccid[ae]}
({Margarodes formicarum}), found in ants' nests in the
Bahamas, and having a shelly covering. They are strung
like beads, and made into necklaces by the natives.

{Ground pig} (Zool.), a large, burrowing, African rodent
({Aulacodus Swinderianus}) about two feet long, allied to
the porcupines but with harsh, bristly hair, and no
spines; -- called also {ground rat}.

{Ground pigeon} (Zool.), one of numerous species of pigeons
which live largely upon the ground, as the tooth-billed
pigeon ({Didunculus strigirostris}), of the Samoan
Islands, and the crowned pigeon, or goura. See {Goura},
and {Ground dove} (above).

{Ground pine}. (Bot.)
(a) A blue-flowered herb of the genus {Ajuga} ({A.
Cham[ae]pitys}), formerly included in the genus
{Teucrium} or germander, and named from its resinous
smell. --Sir J. Hill.
(b) A long, creeping, evergreen plant of the genus
{Lycopodium} ({L. clavatum}); -- called also {club
moss}.
(c) A tree-shaped evergreen plant about eight inches in
height, of the same genus ({L. dendroideum}) found in
moist, dark woods in the northern part of the United
States. --Gray.

{Ground plan} (Arch.), a plan of the ground floor of any
building, or of any floor, as distinguished from an
elevation or perpendicular section.

{Ground plane}, the horizontal plane of projection in
perspective drawing.

{Ground plate}.
(a) (Arch.) One of the chief pieces of framing of a
building; a timber laid horizontally on or near the
ground to support the uprights; a ground sill or
groundsel.
(b) (Railroads) A bed plate for sleepers or ties; a
mudsill.
(c) (Teleg.) A metallic plate buried in the earth to
conduct the electric current thereto. Connection to
the pipes of a gas or water main is usual in cities.
--Knight.

{Ground plot}, the ground upon which any structure is
erected; hence, any basis or foundation; also, a ground
plan.

{Ground plum} (Bot.), a leguminous plant ({Astragalus
caryocarpus}) occurring from the Saskatchewan to Texas,
and having a succulent plum-shaped pod.

{Ground rat}. (Zool.) See {Ground pig} (above).

{Ground rent}, rent paid for the privilege of building on
another man's land.

{Ground robin}. (Zool.) See {Chewink}.

{Ground room}, a room on the ground floor; a lower room.
--Tatler.

{Ground sea}, the West Indian name for a swell of the ocean,
which occurs in calm weather and without obvious cause,
breaking on the shore in heavy roaring billows; -- called
also {rollers}, and in Jamaica, {the North sea}.

{Ground sill}. See {Ground plate} (a) (above).

{Ground snake} (Zool.), a small burrowing American snake
({Celuta am[oe]na}). It is salmon colored, and has a blunt
tail.

{Ground squirrel}. (Zool.)
(a) One of numerous species of burrowing rodents of the
genera {Tamias} and {Spermophilus}, having cheek
pouches. The former genus includes the Eastern
striped squirrel or chipmunk and some allied Western
species; the latter includes the prairie squirrel or
striped gopher, the gray gopher, and many allied
Western species. See {Chipmunk}, and {Gopher}.
(b) Any species of the African genus {Xerus}, allied to
{Tamias}.

{Ground story}. Same as {Ground floor} (above).

{Ground substance} (Anat.), the intercellular substance, or
matrix, of tissues.

{Ground swell}.
(a) (Bot.) The plant groundsel. [Obs.] --Holland.
(b) A broad, deep swell or undulation of the ocean,
caused by a long continued gale, and felt even at a
remote distance after the gale has ceased.

{Ground table}. (Arch.) See Earth table, under Earth.

{Ground tackle} (Naut.), the tackle necessary to secure a
vessel at anchor. --Totten.

{Ground thrush} (Zool.), one of numerous species of
bright-colored Oriental birds of the family {Pittid[ae]}.
See {Pitta}.

{Ground tier}.
(a) The lowest tier of water casks in a vessel's hold.
--Totten.
(b) The lowest line of articles of any kind stowed in a
vessel's hold.
(c) The lowest range of boxes in a theater.

{Ground timbers} (Shipbuilding) the timbers which lie on the
keel and are bolted to the keelson; floor timbers.
--Knight.

{Ground tit}. (Zool.) See {Ground wren} (below).

{Ground wheel}, that wheel of a harvester, mowing machine,
etc., which, rolling on the ground, drives the mechanism.


{Ground wren} (Zool.), a small California bird ({Cham[ae]a
fasciata}) allied to the wrens and titmice. It inhabits
the arid plains. Called also {ground tit}, and {wren tit}.


{To bite the ground}, {To break ground}. See under {Bite},
{Break}.

{To come to the ground}, {To fall to the ground}, to come to
nothing; to fail; to miscarry.

{To gain ground}.
(a) To advance; to proceed forward in conflict; as, an
army in battle gains ground.
(b) To obtain an advantage; to have some success; as, the
army gains ground on the enemy.
(c) To gain credit; to become more prosperous or
influential.

{To get ground}, or {To gather ground}, to gain ground. [R.]
"Evening mist . . . gathers ground fast." --Milton.
[1913 Webster]

There is no way for duty to prevail, and get ground
of them, but by bidding higher. --South.

{To give ground}, to recede; to yield advantage.
[1913 Webster]

These nine . . . began to give me ground. --Shak.

{To lose ground}, to retire; to retreat; to withdraw from the
position taken; hence, to lose advantage; to lose credit
or reputation; to decline.

{To stand one's ground}, to stand firm; to resist attack or
encroachment. --Atterbury.

{To take the ground} to touch bottom or become stranded; --
said of a ship.
[1913 Webster]


ground \ground\ (ground), v. t. [imp. & p. p. {grounded}; p. pr.
& vb. n. {grounding}.]
1. To lay, set, or run, on the ground.
[1913 Webster]

2. To found; to fix or set, as on a foundation, reason, or
principle; to furnish a ground for; to fix firmly.
[1913 Webster]

Being rooted and grounded in love. --Eph. iii.
17.
[1913 Webster]

So far from warranting any inference to the
existence of a God, would, on the contrary, ground
even an argument to his negation. --Sir W.
Hamilton
[1913 Webster]

3. To instruct in elements or first principles.
[1913 Webster]

4. (Elec.) To connect with the ground so as to make the earth
a part of an electrical circuit.
[1913 Webster]

5. (Fine Arts) To cover with a ground, as a copper plate for
etching (see {Ground}, n., 5); or as paper or other
materials with a uniform tint as a preparation for
ornament.
[1913 Webster]

6. To forbid (a pilot) to fly an airplane; -- usually as a
disciplinary measure, or for reasons of ill health
sufficient to interfere with performance.
[PJC]

7. To forbid (aircraft) to fly; -- usually due to the unsafe
condition of the aircraft or lack of conformity to safety
regulations; as, the discovery of a crack in the wing of a
Trijet caused the whole fleeet to be grounded for
inspection.
[PJC]

8. To temporarily restrict the activities of (a child),
especially social activity outside the house; -- usually
for bad or unsatisfactory conduct; as, Johnny was grounded
for fighting at school and can't go to the movies for two
weeks.
[PJC]


Grind \Grind\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Ground}; p. pr. & vb. n.
{Grinding}.] [AS. grindan; perh. akin to L. frendere to
gnash, grind. Cf. {Grist}.]
1. To reduce to powder by friction, as in a mill, or with the
teeth; to crush into small fragments; to produce as by the
action of millstones.
[1913 Webster]

Take the millstones, and grind meal. --Is. xivii.
2.
[1913 Webster]

2. To wear down, polish, or sharpen, by friction; to make
smooth, sharp, or pointed; to whet, as a knife or drill;
to rub against one another, as teeth, etc.
[1913 Webster]

3. To oppress by severe exactions; to harass.
[1913 Webster]

To grind the subject or defraud the prince.
--Dryden.
[1913 Webster]

4. To study hard for examination; -- commonly used with away;
as, to grind away at one's studies. [College Slang]
[1913 Webster]


ground \ground\, v. i.
To run aground; to strike the bottom and remain fixed; as,
the ship grounded on the bar.
[1913 Webster]


ground \ground\,
imp. & p. p. of {Grind}.
[1913 Webster]

{ground cock}, a cock, the plug of which is ground into its
seat, as distinguished from a compression cock. --Knight.

{Ground glass}, glass the transparency of which has been
destroyed by having its surface roughened by grinding.

{Ground joint}, a close joint made by grinding together two
pieces, as of metal with emery and oil, or of glass with
fine sand and water.
[1913 Webster]

573 Moby Thesaurus words for "ground":
Bassalia, a priori principle, abyss, abyssal zone, acres,
affirmation, agora, air brush, airspace, alluvion, alluvium,
ambition, amphitheater, angle, antecedent, antecedents, apriorism,
arable land, area, arena, argument, art paper, aspiration,
assertion, assumed position, assumption, athletic field,
auditorium, axiom, back, backdrop, background, base, basement,
basin, basis, bathyal zone, beach, bear garden, bearing wall, bed,
bedding, bedrock, belt, benthos, billiard table, blow down,
blow over, bottom, bottom waters, bottomless depths, bottommost,
bowl, bowl down, bowl over, bowling green, boxing ring, branny,
bring down, broaden the mind, brush, build, build in, bull ring,
bulldog, call, calling, camera lucida, camera obscura, campus,
canvas, carpet, cast away, cast down, catechize,
categorical proposition, causation, cause, cause and effect, chalk,
chalklike, chalky, channel, charcoal, chop down, chromogen,
cincture, circus, civilize, clay, clod, close, coach, coat,
coat of paint, coating, cockpit, coliseum, color, color filter,
color gelatin, colorant, coloring, colosseum, comminute,
comminuted, compass, confine, confines, confirm, consideration,
container, continental shelf, coop, corridor, coulee, country,
course, court, courtyard, cover, crayon, crushed, crust, curtilage,
cut down, dash down, data, dead flat, dead level, dead-color, deck,
deep-dye, define, delimited field, demonstrate, demonstration,
department, deposit, determinant, determinative, detrital,
detrited, direct, dirt, disintegrated, distance, distemper,
district, division, down, drawing paper, drawing pencil, dregs,
drier, drop, dry land, dust, dusty, dye, dyestuff, earth, easel,
edify, educate, efflorescent, element, embed, enclave, enclosure,
engraft, engrave, enlighten, entrench, environs, esplanade,
establish, etch, etiology, evidence, excuse, exterior paint,
factor, farinaceous, fell, fetch down, field, fine,
first principles, fix, fixative, flaky, flat, flat coat, flat wash,
flatland, flatten, floor, floor covering, floor enamel, flooring,
floury, fold, fond, footing, forum, found, foundation, freehold,
fundament, fundamental, furfuraceous, give instruction,
give lessons in, glebe, goal, gone to dust, good reason, grassland,
grated, grounds, groundwork, guide, guiding light, guiding star,
gym, gymnasium, hall, hardpan, heartland, hew down, hinterland,
hippodrome, homaloid, horizontal, horizontal axis,
horizontal fault, horizontal line, horizontal parallax,
horizontal plane, horizontal projection, hypothesis,
hypothesis ad hoc, ideal, illumine, impact, impalpable, implant,
impress, imprint, infix, inform, infrastructure, ingrain, initiate,
inner space, inscribe, inspiration, install, instruct, insulate,
intention, interior paint, invest, isolate, jam, justification,
knock down, land, landholdings, lay figure, lay level, lay low,
lay out, lay the foundation, ledge, lees, lemma, level, level line,
level plane, levigated, list, lists, lithosphere, loam, locale,
lodestar, lodge, lowest, mainspring, major premise, marginal land,
marketplace, marl, mat, material basis, matter, maulstick, mealy,
mean sea level, medium, milieu, milled, minor premise,
mise-en-scene, mold, motive, mow down, neighborhood, nethermost,
occasion, ocean bottom, ocean depths, ocean floor, offshore rights,
opaque color, open forum, open the eyes, organize, pack, paint,
paintbrush, palaestra, pale, palette, palette knife, paling,
parade ground, park, parquet, part, parterre, parts, pastel, pave,
pavement, paving, pelagic zone, pen, pencil, perspective, pestled,
philosopheme, pigment, pigments, pile up, pit, pitch, place, plain,
plane, plant, platform, position, post, postulate, postulation,
postulatum, powdered, powdery, prairie, precinct, precincts,
precipitate, precipitation, premise, premises, prepare,
presupposition, prime coat, primer, priming, principle, print,
prize ring, proof, proposition, propositional function, prostrate,
public square, pull down, pulverant, pulverized, pulverulent,
purlieu, purlieus, put in, put up, quad, quadrangle, quarter,
radical, range, rase, rationale, raze, real estate, real property,
rear, reason, reduced to powder, reeducate, region, regolith,
right, ring, riprap, rock bottom, rock-bottom, root, rudiment,
run aground, sake, salient, scaly, scene, scene of action, scenery,
school, scobicular, scobiform, scope, score, scratchboard, scurfy,
sea level, sea of grass, seat, section, sediment, send headlong,
set, set in, set right, set up, setting, settle, settlings,
sharded, sharpen the wits, shipwreck, show, show how, shredded,
siccative, sill, site, sketchbook, sketchpad, sod, soil,
solid ground, solid rock, source, space, spatula, sphere,
spray gun, spread-eagle, spring, square, squared circle, stadium,
stage, stage set, stage setting, stain, stamp, stand, standing,
statement, station, status, steppe, stereobate, stereotype,
stimulus, strand, stump, stylobate, subaerial deposit, subsoil,
substance, substratum, substruction, substructure, sumption,
supinate, supposal, surfacing, sustain, table, take down,
take the ground, teach, teach a lesson, teach the rudiments,
tempera, terra, terra firma, terrace, terrain, territory, test,
testimony, the country, the deep, the deep sea, the deeps,
the depths, theater, theorem, thesis, thinner, three-mile limit,
throw, throw down, tilting ground, tiltyard, tinction, tincture,
toft, topple, topsoil, train, transparent color, trench, trial,
trip, triturated, truth table, truth-function, truth-value, tumble,
turf, turpentine, turps, tutor, twelve-mile limit, ulterior motive,
underbuilding, undercarriage, undercoat, undercoating,
undergirding, undermost, underpinning, understruction,
understructure, varnish, vehicle, venue, vest, vicinage, vicinity,
viewpoint, vocation, walk, warrant, wash, wash coat, water level,
wedge, whack down, wherefore, why, whyfor, woodland, wreck,
wrestling ring, yard, zone



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