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element    音標拼音: ['ɛləmənt]
n. 元素;組成部分,成分;零件,元件

元素;組成部分,成分;零件,元件

element
元素; 單位 ELEM


element
單元; 元件; 元素 EL

element
元件 元素

element
n 1: an abstract part of something; "jealousy was a component of
his character"; "two constituents of a musical composition
are melody and harmony"; "the grammatical elements of a
sentence"; "a key factor in her success"; "humor: an
effective ingredient of a speech" [synonym: {component},
{constituent}, {element}, {factor}, {ingredient}]
2: an artifact that is one of the individual parts of which a
composite entity is made up; especially a part that can be
separated from or attached to a system; "spare components for
cars"; "a component or constituent element of a system" [synonym:
{component}, {constituent}, {element}]
3: any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur
naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances
and that singly or in combination constitute all matter [synonym:
{chemical element}, {element}]
4: the most favorable environment for a plant or animal; "water
is the element of fishes"
5: one of four substances thought in ancient and medieval
cosmology to constitute the physical universe; "the
alchemists believed that there were four elements"
6: the situation in which you are happiest and most effective;
"in your element"
7: a straight line that generates a cylinder or cone

Element \El"e*ment\, n. [F. ['e]l['e]ment, L. elementum.]
1. One of the simplest or essential parts or principles of
which anything consists, or upon which the constitution or
fundamental powers of anything are based.
[1913 Webster]

2. One of the ultimate, undecomposable constituents of any
kind of matter. Specifically: (Chem.) A substance which
cannot be decomposed into different kinds of matter by any
means at present employed; as, the elements of water are
oxygen and hydrogen.
[1913 Webster]

Note: The elements are naturally classified in several
families or groups, as the group of the alkaline
elements, the halogen group, and the like. They are
roughly divided into two great classes, the metals, as
sodium, calcium, etc., which form basic compounds, and
the nonmetals or metalloids, as oxygen, sulphur,
chlorine, which form acid compounds; but the
distinction is only relative, and some, as arsenic,
tin, aluminium, etc., form both acid and basic
compounds. The essential fact regarding every element
is its relative atomic number, which is equal to the
number of protons in the nucleus, and also equal to the
number of electrons in orbitals around the nucleus when
the atom is neutral. When the elements are tabulated in
the order of their ascending atomic numbers, the
arrangement constitutes the series of the Periodic law
of Mendelejeff. See {Periodic law}, under {Periodic}.
This Periodic law enables us to predict the qualities
of unknown elements. The number of elements known in
1890 were about seventy-five, but at that time the gaps
in the Periodic law indicated the possibility of many
more. All of the elements up to atomic number 100 have
now been observed though some are radioactive and very
unstable, and in some cases cannot be accumulated in
quantity sufficient to actually see by eye. The
properties predicted by the periodic law wre close to
the observed properties in many cases. Additional
unstable elements of atomic number over 100 are
observed from time to time, prepared in cyclotrons,
particle acclerators, or nuclear reactors, and some of
their properties are measurable by careful observation
of microscopic quantities, as few as several atoms. For
such unstable elements, the properties are now
predicted primarily by calculations based on quantum
mechanics. Such theories suggest that there may be an
"island" of relative stability of elements of atomic
number over 120, but this has yet to be confirmed by
experiment.
Many of the elements with which we are familiar, as
hydrogen, carbon, iron, gold, etc., have been
recognized, by means of spectrum analysis, in the sun
and the fixed stars. The chemical elements are now
known not be simple bodies, but only combinations of
subatomic particles such as protons, neutrons, and
electrons; ahd protons and neutrons are now believed to
be themselves combinations of quarks, particles which
are not observed singly, but only in combinations.
In formulas, the elements are designated by
abbreviations of their names in Latin or New Latin,
given in the table below. The atomic weights given in
the table below are the

{chemical atomic weights}, in some cases being the weighted
average of the atomic weights of individual isotopes, each
having a different atomic weight. The atomic weight of the
individual isotopes are called the physical atomic
weights. In those few cases where there is only one stable
isotope of an element, the chemical and physical atomic
weights are the same. The mass-spectrometric atomic
weights are those used for careful mass-spectrometric
measurements. For more details about individual elements,
see the element names in the vocabulary The Elements
----------------------------------------------------------
Name |Sym-| Atomic Weight |
|bol | O=16 | H=1 | C=12.000
----------------------------------------------------------
Aluminum | Al | 27.1 | 26.9 |
Antimony (Stibium) | Sb | 120 | 119.1 |
Argon | A | 39.9 | 39.6 |
Arsenic | As | 75 | 74.4 |
Astatine | At |
Barium | Ba | 137.4 | 136.4 |
Beryllium | Be |
Bismuth | Bi | 208.5 | 206.9 |
Boron | B | 11 | 10.9 |
Bromine | Br | 79.96 | 79.36|
Cadmium | Cd | 112.4 | 111.6 |
Cesium (Caesium) | Cs | 133 | 132 |
Calcium | Ca | 40 | 39.7 |
Carbon | C | 12 | 11.91| 12.000
Cerium | Ce | 140 | 139 |
Chlorine | Cl | 35.45 | 35.18|
Chromium | Cr | 52.1 | 51.7 |
Cobalt | Co |
Columbium (see {Beryllium})
Copper | Cu |
({Cuprum})
Erbium | Er |
Europium | Eu |
Einsteinium | Es |
Fermium | Fe |
Fluorine | F |
Gadolinium | Gd |
Gallium | Ga |
Germanium | Ge |
Glucinum (now {Beryllium})
Gold (Aurum) | Au |
Helium | He |
Hydrogen | H |
Indium | In |
Iodine | I |
Iridium | Ir |
Iron | Fe |
(Ferrum)
Krypton | Kr |
Lanthanum | La |
Lead | Pb |
(Plumbum)
Lithium | Li |
Magnesium | Mg |
Manganese | Mn |
Mercury | Hg |
({Hydrargyrum})
Molybdenum | Mo |
Neodymium | Nd |
Neon | Ne |
Nickel | Ni |
Niobium | Nb |
(see Columbium)
Nitrogen | N |
Osmium | Os |
Oxygen | O |
Palladium | Pd |
Phosphorus | P |
Platinum | Pt |
Potassium | K |
(Kalium)
Praseodymium | Pr |
Rhodium | Rh |
Rubidium | Rb |
Ruthenium | Ru |
Samarium | Sa |
Scandium | Sc |
Selenium | Se |
Silicon | Si |
Silver | Ag |
(Argentum)
Sodium | Na |
(Natrium)
Strontium | Sr |
Sulphur | S |
Tantalum | Ta |
Tellurium | Te |
Thallium | Tl |
Thorium | Th |
Thulium | Tu |
Tin | Sn |
(Stannum)
Titanium | Ti |
Tungsten | W |
(Wolframium)
Uranium | U |
Vanadium | V |
Wolfranium (see {Tungsten})
Xenon | X |
Ytterbium | Yb |
Yttrium | Y |
Zinc | Zn |
Zirconium | Zr |
----------------------------------------------------------
[1913 Webster]

Note: Several other elements have been announced, as holmium,
vesbium, austrium, etc., but their properties, and in
some cases their existence, have not yet been
definitely established.
[1913 Webster]

3. One of the ultimate parts which are variously combined in
anything; as, letters are the elements of written
language; hence, also, a simple portion of that which is
complex, as a shaft, lever, wheel, or any simple part in a
machine; one of the essential ingredients of any mixture;
a constituent part; as, quartz, feldspar, and mica are the
elements of granite.
[1913 Webster]

The simplicity which is so large an element in a
noble nature was laughed to scorn. --Jowett
(Thucyd.).
[1913 Webster]

4.
(a) One out of several parts combined in a system of
aggregation, when each is of the nature of the whole;
as, a single cell is an element of the honeycomb.
(b) (Anat.) One of the smallest natural divisions of the
organism, as a blood corpuscle, a muscular fiber.
[1913 Webster]

5. (Biol.) One of the simplest essential parts, more commonly
called cells, of which animal and vegetable organisms, or
their tissues and organs, are composed.
[1913 Webster]

6. (Math.)
(a) An infinitesimal part of anything of the same nature
as the entire magnitude considered; as, in a solid an
element may be the infinitesimal portion between any
two planes that are separated an indefinitely small
distance. In the calculus, element is sometimes used
as synonymous with differential.
(b) Sometimes a curve, or surface, or volume is considered
as described by a moving point, or curve, or surface,
the latter being at any instant called an element of
the former.
(c) One of the terms in an algebraic expression.
[1913 Webster]

7. One of the necessary data or values upon which a system of
calculations depends, or general conclusions are based;
as, the elements of a planet's orbit.
[1913 Webster]

8. pl. The simplest or fundamental principles of any system
in philosophy, science, or art; rudiments; as, the
elements of geometry, or of music.
[1913 Webster]

9. pl. Any outline or sketch, regarded as containing the
fundamental ideas or features of the thing in question;
as, the elements of a plan.
[1913 Webster]

10. One of the simple substances, as supposed by the ancient
philosophers; one of the imaginary principles of matter.
(a) The four elements were, air, earth, water, and fire;

Note: whence it is said, water is the proper element of
fishes; air is the element of birds. Hence, the state
or sphere natural to anything or suited for its
existence.
[1913 Webster]

Of elements
The grosser feeds the purer: Earth the Sea;
Earth and the Sea feed Air; the Air those Fires
Ethereal. --Milton.
[1913 Webster]

Does not our life consist of the four elements?
--Shak.
[1913 Webster]

And the complexion of the element [i. e.,the sky
or air]
In favor's like the work we have in hand,
Most bloody, fiery, and most terrible. --Shak.
[1913 Webster]

About twelve ounces [of food], with mere element
for drink. --Cheyne.
[1913 Webster]

They show that they are out of their element.
--T. Baker.
Esp., the conditions and movements of the air. "The
elements be kind to thee."
(b) The elements of the alchemists were salt, sulphur,
and mercury. --Brande & C.
[1913 Webster]

11. pl. The whole material composing the world.
[1913 Webster]

The elements shall melt with fervent heat. --2
Peter iii. 10.
[1913 Webster]

12. pl. (Eccl.) The bread and wine used in the eucharist or
Lord's supper.
[1913 Webster]

{Magnetic element}, one of the hypothetical elementary
portions of which a magnet is regarded as made up.
[1913 Webster]


Element \El"e*ment\ ([e^]l"[-e]*m[e^]nt), v. t.
1. To compound of elements or first principles. [Obs.]
"[Love] being elemented too." --Donne.
[1913 Webster]

2. To constitute; to make up with elements.
[1913 Webster]

His very soul was elemented of nothing but sadness.
--Walton.
[1913 Webster]

232 Moby Thesaurus words for "element":
acid, acidity, addend, adjunct, agent, air, alkali, alkalinity,
alloisomer, americium, anion, antacid, antecedents, antilogarithm,
appurtenance, argument, article, aspect, astatine, atmosphere,
atom, atomic particles, autecology, base, basic, basics, basis,
berkelium, binomial, biochemical, bioecology, bionomics,
brute matter, building block, burner, caliduct, call, case, cation,
causation, cause, cause and effect, characteristic, chemical,
chemical element, chromoisomer, circumstance, coefficient,
combination, complement, component, compound, congruence, constant,
constituent, contents, cooker, cookery, copolymer, cosine,
cotangent, count, cube, curium, datum, decimal, denominator,
derivative, detail, determinant, determinative, difference,
differential, dimer, discriminate, dividend, divisor, domain, e,
earth, ecoclimate, ecodeme, ecology, ecosystem, einsteinium,
elementary particle, elementary unit, elements, environment,
equation, essential, essentials, etiology, exponent, exponential,
facet, fact, factor, feature, fermium, fire, fixings, formula,
francium, function, fundamental, fundamental particle,
fundamentals, furnace, gas jet, ground, grounds, habitat, hahnium,
heater, heating duct, heavy chemicals, high polymer, homopolymer,
hydracid, hyle, hypostasis, i, incidental, increment, index,
ingredient, inorganic chemical, instance, integral, integrant, ion,
isomer, item, jet, locale, macromolecule, makings, material,
material world, materiality, matrix, matter, medium, mendelevium,
metamer, minor detail, minuend, minutia, minutiae, molecule, monad,
monomer, multiple, multiplier, natural world, nature, neptunium,
neutralizer, nonacid, norm, numerator, occasion, organic chemical,
oxyacid, parameter, part, part and parcel, particular, permutation,
physical world, pi, piece, pilot light, plenum, plutonium, point,
polonium, polymer, polynomial, power, principle, principles,
promethium, protactinium, pseudoisomer, quaternion, quotient,
radical, radium, radix, radon, reagent, reciprocal, regard,
remainder, respect, root, rudiments, secant, segment, sine,
situation, specialty, sphere, steam pipe, stimulus, stove, stuff,
submultiple, substance, substratum, subtrahend, sulfacid,
synecology, tangent, technetium, tensor, territory, tewel,
the four elements, thing, trimer, tuyere, unit, unit of being,
uranium, variable, vector, versine, warmer, water

1. One of the items of data in an {array}.

2. One kind of node in an {SGML}, {HTML}, or
{XML} {document} {tree}. An SGML element is typically
represented by a start {tag} ("

") and an end tag ("

").
In some SGML implementations, some tags are omissible, as with
"

" in {HTML}.

The start tag can contain {attributes} ("

class='stuff'>"), which are an unordered set of key-value
bindings for that element. Both the start tag and end tag for
an element typically contain the "tag name" (also called the
"{GI}" or generic identifier) for that element.

In {XML}, an element is always represented either by an
explicit start tag and end tag, or by an empty element tag
("a dodad").

Other kinds of SGML node are: a section of character data
("foo"), a comment (""), a markup declaration
(""), or a processing instruction
("?>").

(2001-01-30)

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