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chemistry    音標拼音: [k'ɛməstri] [k'ɛmɪstri]
n. 化學,化學作用

化學,化學作用

chemistry
化學

chemistry
n 1: the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences
dealing with the composition of substances and their
properties and reactions [synonym: {chemistry}, {chemical
science}]
2: the chemical composition and properties of a substance or
object; "the chemistry of soil"
3: the way two individuals relate to each other; "their
chemistry was wrong from the beginning -- they hated each
other"; "a mysterious alchemy brought them together" [synonym:
{chemistry}, {interpersonal chemistry}, {alchemy}]

Natural \Nat"u*ral\ (?; 135), a. [OE. naturel, F. naturel, fr.
L. naturalis, fr. natura. See {Nature}.]
1. Fixed or determined by nature; pertaining to the
constitution of a thing; belonging to native character;
according to nature; essential; characteristic; innate;
not artificial, foreign, assumed, put on, or acquired; as,
the natural growth of animals or plants; the natural
motion of a gravitating body; natural strength or
disposition; the natural heat of the body; natural color.
[1913 Webster]

With strong natural sense, and rare force of will.
--Macaulay.
[1913 Webster]

2. Conformed to the order, laws, or actual facts, of nature;
consonant to the methods of nature; according to the
stated course of things, or in accordance with the laws
which govern events, feelings, etc.; not exceptional or
violent; legitimate; normal; regular; as, the natural
consequence of crime; a natural death; anger is a natural
response to insult.
[1913 Webster]

What can be more natural than the circumstances in
the behavior of those women who had lost their
husbands on this fatal day? --Addison.
[1913 Webster]

3. Having to do with existing system to things; dealing with,
or derived from, the creation, or the world of matter and
mind, as known by man; within the scope of human reason or
experience; not supernatural; as, a natural law; natural
science; history, theology.
[1913 Webster]

I call that natural religion which men might know .
. . by the mere principles of reason, improved by
consideration and experience, without the help of
revelation. --Bp. Wilkins.
[1913 Webster]

4. Conformed to truth or reality; as:
(a) Springing from true sentiment; not artificial or
exaggerated; -- said of action, delivery, etc.; as, a
natural gesture, tone, etc.
(b) Resembling the object imitated; true to nature;
according to the life; -- said of anything copied or
imitated; as, a portrait is natural.
[1913 Webster]

5. Having the character or sentiments properly belonging to
one's position; not unnatural in feelings.
[1913 Webster]

To leave his wife, to leave his babes, . . .
He wants the natural touch. --Shak.
[1913 Webster]

6. Connected by the ties of consanguinity. especially,
Related by birth rather than by adoption; as, one's
natural mother. "Natural friends." --J. H. Newman.
[1913 Webster PJC]

7. Hence: Begotten without the sanction of law; born out of
wedlock; illegitimate; bastard; as, a natural child.
[1913 Webster]

8. Of or pertaining to the lower or animal nature, as
contrasted with the higher or moral powers, or that which
is spiritual; being in a state of nature; unregenerate.
[1913 Webster]

The natural man receiveth not the things of the
Spirit of God. --1 Cor. ii.
14.
[1913 Webster]

9. (Math.) Belonging to, to be taken in, or referred to, some
system, in which the base is 1; -- said of certain
functions or numbers; as, natural numbers, those
commencing at 1; natural sines, cosines, etc., those taken
in arcs whose radii are 1.
[1913 Webster]

10. (Mus.)
(a) Produced by natural organs, as those of the human
throat, in distinction from instrumental music.
(b) Of or pertaining to a key which has neither a flat
nor a sharp for its signature, as the key of C major.
(c) Applied to an air or modulation of harmony which
moves by easy and smooth transitions, digressing but
little from the original key.
(d) Neither flat nor sharp; -- of a tone.
(e) Changed to the pitch which is neither flat nor sharp,
by appending the sign [natural]; as, A natural.
--Moore (Encyc. of Music).
[1913 Webster PJC]

11. Existing in nature or created by the forces of nature, in
contrast to production by man; not made, manufactured, or
processed by humans; as, a natural ruby; a natural
bridge; natural fibers; a deposit of natural calcium
sulfate. Opposed to {artificial}, {man-made},
{manufactured}, {processed} and {synthetic}. [WordNet
sense 2]
[PJC]

12. Hence: Not processed or refined; in the same statre as
that existing in nature; as, natural wood; natural foods.
[PJC]

{Natural day}, the space of twenty-four hours. --Chaucer.
[1913 Webster]

{Natural fats}, {Natural gas}, etc. See under {Fat}, {Gas}.
etc.

{Natural Harmony} (Mus.), the harmony of the triad or common
chord.

{Natural history}, in its broadest sense, a history or
description of nature as a whole, including the sciences
of {botany}, {Zoology}, {geology}, {mineralogy},
{paleontology}, {chemistry}, and {physics}. In recent
usage the term is often restricted to the sciences of
botany and Zoology collectively, and sometimes to the
science of zoology alone.

{Natural law}, that instinctive sense of justice and of right
and wrong, which is native in mankind, as distinguished
from specifically revealed divine law, and formulated
human law.

{Natural modulation} (Mus.), transition from one key to its
relative keys.

{Natural order}. (Nat. Hist.) See under {order}.

{Natural person}. (Law) See under {person}, n.

{Natural philosophy}, originally, the study of nature in
general; the natural sciences; in modern usage, that
branch of physical science, commonly called {physics},
which treats of the phenomena and laws of matter and
considers those effects only which are unaccompanied by
any change of a chemical nature; -- contrasted with
{mental philosophy} and {moral philosophy}.

{Natural scale} (Mus.), a scale which is written without
flats or sharps.

Note: Model would be a preferable term, as less likely to
mislead, the so-called artificial scales (scales
represented by the use of flats and sharps) being
equally natural with the so-called natural scale.

{Natural science}, the study of objects and phenomena
existing in nature, especially biology, chemistry, physics
and their interdisciplinary related sciences; {natural
history}, in its broadest sense; -- used especially in
contradistinction to {social science}, {mathematics},
{philosophy}, {mental science} or {moral science}.

{Natural selection} (Biol.), the operation of natural laws
analogous, in their operation and results, to designed
selection in breeding plants and animals, and resulting in
the survival of the fittest; the elimination over time of
species unable to compete in specific environments with
other species more adapted to survival; -- the essential
mechanism of evolution. The principle of natural selection
is neutral with respect to the mechanism by which
inheritable changes occur in organisms (most commonly
thought to be due to mutation of genes and reorganization
of genomes), but proposes that those forms which have
become so modified as to be better adapted to the existing
environment have tended to survive and leave similarly
adapted descendants, while those less perfectly adapted
have tended to die out through lack of fitness for the
environment, thus resulting in the survival of the
fittest. See {Darwinism}.

{Natural system} (Bot. & Zool.), a classification based upon
real affinities, as shown in the structure of all parts of
the organisms, and by their embryology.

It should be borne in mind that the natural system
of botany is natural only in the constitution of its
genera, tribes, orders, etc., and in its grand
divisions. --Gray.


{Natural theology}, or {Natural religion}, that part of
theological science which treats of those evidences of the
existence and attributes of the Supreme Being which are
exhibited in nature; -- distinguished from {revealed
religion}. See Quotation under {Natural}, a., 3.

{Natural vowel}, the vowel sound heard in urn, furl, sir,
her, etc.; -- so called as being uttered in the easiest
open position of the mouth organs. See {Neutral vowel},
under {Neutral} and Guide to Pronunciation, [sect] 17.
[1913 Webster PJC]

Syn: See {Native}.
[1913 Webster]


Chemistry \Chem"is*try\ (k[e^]m"[i^]s*tr[y^]; 277), n. [From
{Chemist}. See {Alchemy}.]
1. That branch of science which treats of the composition of
substances, and of the changes which they undergo in
consequence of alterations in the constitution of the
molecules, which depend upon variations of the number,
kind, or mode of arrangement, of the constituent atoms.
These atoms are not assumed to be indivisible, but merely
the finest grade of subdivision hitherto attained.
Chemistry deals with the changes in the composition and
constitution of molecules. See {Atom}, {Molecule}.
[1913 Webster]

Note: Historically, chemistry is an outgrowth of alchemy (or
alchemistry), with which it was anciently identified.
[1913 Webster]

2. An application of chemical theory and method to the
consideration of some particular subject; as, the
chemistry of iron; the chemistry of indigo.
[1913 Webster]

3. A treatise on chemistry.
[1913 Webster]

Note: This word and its derivatives were formerly written
with y, and sometimes with i, instead of e, in the
first syllable, chymistry, chymist, chymical, etc., or
chimistry, chimist, chimical, etc.; and the
pronunciation was conformed to the orthography.
[1913 Webster]

{Inorganic chemistry}, that which treats of inorganic or
mineral substances.

{Organic chemistry}, that which treats of the substances
which form the structure of organized beings and their
products, whether animal or vegetable; -- called also
{chemistry of the carbon compounds}. There is no
fundamental difference between organic and inorganic
chemistry.

{Physiological chemistry}, the chemistry of the organs and
tissues of the body, and of the various physiological
processes incident to life.

{Practical chemistry}, or {Applied chemistry}, that which
treats of the modes of manufacturing the products of
chemistry that are useful in the arts, of their
applications to economical purposes, and of the conditions
essential to their best use.

{Pure chemistry}, the consideration of the facts and theories
of chemistry in their purely scientific relations, without
necessary reference to their practical applications or
mere utility.
[1913 Webster]

39 Moby Thesaurus words for "chemistry":
alchemy, applied chemistry, astrochemistry, biochemistry,
biogeochemistry, chemicobiology, chemicoengineering, chemurgy,
colloid chemistry, crystallochemistry, cytochemistry,
electrochemistry, engineering chemistry, geochemistry,
geological chemistry, hydrochemistry, iatrochemistry,
immunochemistry, inorganic chemistry, lithochemistry,
macrochemistry, mineralogical chemistry, nuclear chemistry,
pathochemistry, petrochemistry, pharmacochemistry,
physical chemistry, physicochemistry, phytochemistry,
psychobiochemistry, radiochemistry, soil chemistry,
theoretical chemistry, thermochemistry, topochemistry,
ultramicrochemistry, zoochemistry, zymochemistry, zymurgy



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