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abstract    音標拼音: [æbstr'ækt] ['æbstr,ækt]
n. 摘要,抽象
a. 抽象的,深奧的
vt. 摘要,提煉,使抽象化

摘要,抽象抽象的,深奧的摘要,提煉,使抽象化

abstract
摘要

abstract
摘要 抽象

abstract
adj 1: existing only in the mind; separated from embodiment;
"abstract words like `truth' and `justice'" [ant:
{concrete}]
2: not representing or imitating external reality or the objects
of nature; "a large abstract painting" [synonym: {abstract},
{abstractionist}, {nonfigurative}, {nonobjective}]
3: dealing with a subject in the abstract without practical
purpose or intention; "abstract reasoning"; "abstract
science"
n 1: a concept or idea not associated with any specific
instance; "he loved her only in the abstract--not in
person" [synonym: {abstraction}, {abstract}]
2: a sketchy summary of the main points of an argument or theory
[synonym: {outline}, {synopsis}, {abstract}, {precis}]
v 1: consider a concept without thinking of a specific example;
consider abstractly or theoretically
2: make off with belongings of others [synonym: {pilfer}, {cabbage},
{purloin}, {pinch}, {abstract}, {snarf}, {swipe}, {hook},
{sneak}, {filch}, {nobble}, {lift}]
3: consider apart from a particular case or instance; "Let's
abstract away from this particular example"
4: give an abstract (of)

Abstract \Ab"stract`\ (#; 277), a. [L. abstractus, p. p. of
abstrahere to draw from, separate; ab, abs trahere to draw.
See {Trace}.]
1. Withdraw; separate. [Obs.]
[1913 Webster]

The more abstract . . . we are from the body.
--Norris.
[1913 Webster]

2. Considered apart from any application to a particular
object; separated from matter; existing in the mind only;
as, abstract truth, abstract numbers. Hence: ideal;
abstruse; difficult.
[1913 Webster]

3. (Logic)
(a) Expressing a particular property of an object viewed
apart from the other properties which constitute it;
-- opposed to {concrete}; as, honesty is an abstract
word. --J. S. Mill.
(b) Resulting from the mental faculty of abstraction;
general as opposed to particular; as, "reptile" is an
abstract or general name. --Locke.
[1913 Webster]

A concrete name is a name which stands for a
thing; an abstract name which stands for an
attribute of a thing. A practice has grown up in
more modern times, which, if not introduced by
Locke, has gained currency from his example, of
applying the expression "abstract name" to all
names which are the result of abstraction and
generalization, and consequently to all general
names, instead of confining it to the names of
attributes. --J. S. Mill.
[1913 Webster]

4. Abstracted; absent in mind. "Abstract, as in a trance."
--Milton.
[1913 Webster]

{An abstract idea} (Metaph.), an idea separated from a
complex object, or from other ideas which naturally
accompany it; as the solidity of marble when contemplated
apart from its color or figure.

{Abstract terms}, those which express abstract ideas, as
beauty, whiteness, roundness, without regarding any object
in which they exist; or abstract terms are the names of
orders, genera or species of things, in which there is a
combination of similar qualities.

{Abstract numbers} (Math.), numbers used without application
to things, as 6, 8, 10; but when applied to any thing, as
6 feet, 10 men, they become concrete.

{Abstract mathematics} or {Pure mathematics}. See
{Mathematics}.
[1913 Webster]


Abstract \Ab*stract"\, v. t.
To perform the process of abstraction. [R.]
[1913 Webster]

I own myself able to abstract in one sense. --Berkeley.
[1913 Webster]


Abstract \Ab*stract"\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Abstracted}; p. pr.
& vb. n. {Abstracting}.] [See {Abstract}, a.]
[1913 Webster]
1. To withdraw; to separate; to take away.
[1913 Webster]

He was incapable of forming any opinion or
resolution abstracted from his own prejudices. --Sir
W. Scott.
[1913 Webster]

2. To draw off in respect to interest or attention; as, his
was wholly abstracted by other objects.
[1913 Webster]

The young stranger had been abstracted and silent.
--Blackw. Mag.
[1913 Webster]

3. To separate, as ideas, by the operation of the mind; to
consider by itself; to contemplate separately, as a
quality or attribute. --Whately.
[1913 Webster]

4. To epitomize; to abridge. --Franklin.
[1913 Webster]

5. To take secretly or dishonestly; to purloin; as, to
abstract goods from a parcel, or money from a till.
[1913 Webster]

Von Rosen had quietly abstracted the bearing-reins
from the harness. --W. Black.
[1913 Webster]

6. (Chem.) To separate, as the more volatile or soluble parts
of a substance, by distillation or other chemical
processes. In this sense extract is now more generally
used.
[1913 Webster]


Abstract \Ab"stract`\, n. [See {Abstract}, a.]
1. That which comprises or concentrates in itself the
essential qualities of a larger thing or of several
things. Specifically: A summary or an epitome, as of a
treatise or book, or of a statement; a brief.
[1913 Webster]

An abstract of every treatise he had read. --Watts.
[1913 Webster]

Man, the abstract
Of all perfection, which the workmanship
Of Heaven hath modeled. --Ford.
[1913 Webster]

2. A state of separation from other things; as, to consider a
subject in the abstract, or apart from other associated
things.
[1913 Webster]

3. An abstract term.
[1913 Webster]

The concretes "father" and "son" have, or might
have, the abstracts "paternity" and "filiety." --J.
S. Mill.
[1913 Webster]

4. (Med.) A powdered solid extract of a vegetable substance
mixed with lactose in such proportion that one part of the
abstract represents two parts of the original substance.
[1913 Webster AS]

{Abstract of title} (Law), a document which provides a
summary of the history of ownership of a parcel of real
estate, including the conveyances and mortgages; also
called {brief of title}.
[1913 Webster PJC]

Syn: Abridgment; compendium; epitome; synopsis. See
{Abridgment}.
[1913 Webster]

279 Moby Thesaurus words for "abstract":
abate, abbreviate, abbreviation, abbreviature, abrade, abrege,
abridge, abridgment, abstract idea, abstraction, abstruse,
academic, altarpiece, and, annex, apocope, appropriate, arcane,
armchair, bag, bate, bland, block print, bob, boil down, boost,
borrow, breviary, brief, broad, capsule, capsulize, cast off,
cast out, chuck, clear, clear away, clear out, clear the decks,
clip, collage, collective, color print, colorless, compend,
compress, compression, conceptual, condensation, condense,
condensed version, conjectural, conspectus, contract, cop, copy,
crib, crop, curtail, curtailment, cut, cut back, cut down,
cut off short, cut out, cut short, cyclorama, daub, decrease,
deduct, deep, defraud, deport, depreciate, derogate, detached,
detract, digest, diminish, diptych, disconnect, disengage,
disinterested, disparage, dispassionate, dispose of, dissociate,
divide, dock, draft, drain, eat away, eject, elide, eliminate,
elision, ellipsis, embezzle, engraving, epitome, epitomize,
eradicate, erode, esoteric, essence, exile, expatriate, expel,
extort, extract, featureless, filch, file away, foreshorten,
foreshortening, fresco, general, generalized, generic, get quit of,
get rid of, get shut of, head, hidden, hook, hypothetic,
hypothetical, icon, ideal, ideational, illumination, illustration,
image, impair, impersonal, impractical, indefinite, indeterminate,
intellectual, leach, lessen, lift, likeness, liquidate,
make off with, metaphysical, miniature, montage, moot, mosaic, mow,
mural, nebulous, neutral, nip, nonspecific, notional, occult,
outlaw, outline, overview, palm, pandect, panorama, part,
photograph, pick out, picture, pilfer, pinch, poach, poker-faced,
poll, pollard, postulatory, precis, print, profound, prune, purge,
purify, purloin, reap, recap, recapitulate, recapitulation,
recondite, reduce, reduction, refine, remove, representation,
reproduction, resume, retrench, retrenchment, review, root out,
root up, rub away, rubric, run away with, rustle, scrounge, secret,
separate, shave, shear, shoplift, shorten, shortened version,
shortening, skeleton, sketch, snare, snatch, snitch, snub,
speculative, stained glass window, steal, stencil, still life,
strike off, strike out, stunt, subduct, subtract, sum up,
summarize, summary, summation, survey, swindle, swipe, syllabus,
symbolic, syncope, synopsis, synopsize, tableau, take, take away,
take from, take in, tapestry, telescope, telescoping, theoretical,
thieve, thin, thin out, throw over, throw overboard,
thumbnail sketch, topical outline, transcendent, transcendental,
trim, triptych, truncate, truncation, unapplied, uncharacterized,
uncouple, undemonstrable, undifferentiated, unpractical,
unspecified, utopian, vague, visionary, walk off with,
wall painting, wear away, weed, weed out, wide, withdraw

A description of a concept that leaves out some
information or details in order to simplify it in some useful
way.

Abstraction is a powerful technique that is applied in many
areas of computing and elsewhere. For example: {abstract
class}, {data abstraction}, {abstract interpretation},
{abstract syntax}, {Hardware Abstraction Layer}.

(2009-12-09)



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