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Napoleon    音標拼音: [nəp'oliən] [nəp'oljən]
n. 拿破侖

拿破侖

Napoleon
n 1: French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)
[synonym: {Napoleon}, {Napoleon I}, {Napoleon Bonaparte},
{Bonaparte}, {Little Corporal}]
2: a rectangular piece of pastry with thin flaky layers and
filled with custard cream
3: a card game similar to whist; usually played for stakes [synonym:
{Napoleon}, {nap}]

Napoleon \Napoleon\, Napoleon I \Napoleon
I.\(n[aum]*p[=o]"l[=e]*[u^]n; F. pron.
n[aum]`p[=o]`l[=a]`[o^]N")
Napoleon Bonaparte (or Buonaparte), Born at Ajaccio, Corsica,
Aug. 15, 1766, or, according to some, at Corte, Jan. 7, 1768;
died at Longwood, St. Helena, May 5, 1821. Emperor of the
French 1804-14. He was the son of Charles Marie Bonaparte and
Laetitia Ramolino; studied at the military school of Brienne
1779-84, and at that of Paris 1784-85; and received a
lieutenant's commission in the French army in 1785. He
opposed the patriot movement under Paoli in Corsica in 1793;
commanded the artillery in the attack on Toulon in the same
year; served in the army in Italy in 1794; and, as second in
command to Barras, subdued the revolt of the sections at
Paris in Oct., 1795. He married Josephine de Beauharnais
March 9, 1796. Toward the close of this month (March 27) he
assumed command at Nice of the army in Italy, which he found
opposed by the Austrians and the Sardinians. He began his
campaign April 10, and, after defeating the Austrians at
Montenotte (April 12), Millesimo (April 14), and Dego (April
15), turned (April 15) against the Sardinians, whom he
defeated at Ceva (April 20) and Mondovi (April 22), forcing
them to sign the separate convention of Cherasco (April 29).
In the following month he began an invasion of Lombardy, and
by a brilliant series of victories, including those of Lodi
(May 10) and Arcole (Nov. 15-17), expelled the Austrians from
their possessions in the north of Italy, receiving the
capitulation of Mantua, their last stronghold, Feb. 2, 1797.
Crossing the Alps, he penetrated Styria as far as Leoben,
where he dictated preliminaries of peace April 18. The
definitive peace of Campo-Formio followed (Oct 17). By the
treaty of Campo-Formio northern Italy was reconstructed in
the interest of France, which furthermore acquired the
Austrian Netherlands, and received a guarantee of the left
bank of the Rhine. Campo-Formio destroyed the coalition
against France, and put an end to the Revolutionary war on
the Continent. The only enemy that remained to France was
England. At the instance of Bonaparte the Directory adopted
the plan of attacking the English in India, which involved
the conquest of Egypt. Placed at the head of an expedition of
about 85,000 men, he set sail from Toulon May 19, 1798;
occupied Malta June 12; disembarked at Alexandria July 2; and
defeated the Mamelukes in the decisive battle of the Pyramids
July 21. He was master of Egypt, but the destruction of his
fleet by Nelson in the battle of the Nile (Aug. 1) cut him
off from France and doomed his expedition to failure.
Nevertheless he undertook the subjugation of Syria, and
stormed Jaffa March 7, 1799. Repulsed at Acre, the defense of
which was supported by the English, he commenced a retreat to
Egypt May 21. He inflicted a final defeat on the Turks at
Abukir July 26; transferred the command in Egypt to Kl['e]ber
Aug. 22; and, setting sail with two frigates, arrived in the
harbor of Fr['e]jus Oct. 9. During his absence a new
coalition had been formed against France, and the Directory
saw its armies defeated, both on the Rhine and in Italy. With
the assistance of his brother Lucien and of Siey[`e]s and
Roger Ducos, he executed the coup d'etat of Brumaire, whereby
he abolished the Directory and virtually made himself monarch
under the title of first consul, holding office for a term of
10 years. He crossed the Great St. Bernard in May, 1800, and
restored the French ascendancy in Italy by the victory of
Marengo (June 14), which, with that won by Moreau at
Hohenlinden (Dec. 8), brought about the peace of Lun['e]ville
(Feb. 9, 1801). The treaty of Lun['e]ville, which was based
on that of Campo-Formio, destroyed the coalition, and
restored peace on the Continent. He concluded the peace of
Amiens with England March 27, 1802. After the peace of
Lun['e]ville he commenced the legislative reconstruction of
France, the public institutions of which had been either
destroyed or thrown into confusion during the Revolution. To
this period belong the restoration of the Roman Catholic
Church bythe Concordat (concluded July 15, 1801), the
restoration of higher education by the erection of the new
university (May 1, 1802), and the establishment of the Legion
of Honor (May 19, 1802): preparation had been previously made
for the codification of the laws.
He was made consul for life Aug. 2, 1802; executed the Duc
d'Enghien March 21, 1804; was proclaimed hereditary emperor
of the French May 18, 1804 (the coronation ceremony took
place Dec. 2, 1804); and was crowned king of Italy May 26,
1805. In the meantime England had been provoked into
declaring war (May 18, 1803), and a coalition consisting of
England, Russia, Austria, and Sweden was formed against
France in 1806: Spain was allied with France. The victory of
Nelson at the battle of Trafalgar (Oct. 21, 1805) followed
the failure of the projected invasion of England. Breaking up
his camp at Boulogne, he invaded Austria, occupied Vienna,
and (Dec. 2, 1805) defeated the allied Russians and Austrians
at Austerlitz. The Russians retired from the contest under a
military Convention; the Austrians signed the peace of
Presburg (Dec. 26, 1805); and the coalition was destroyed.
His intervention in germany brought about the erection of the
Confederation of the Rhine July 12, 1806. This confederation,
which was placed under his protection, ultimately embraced
nearly all the states of Germany except Austria and Prussia.
Its erection, together with other provocation, caused Prnssia
to mobilize its army in Aug., and Napoleon presently found
himself opposed by a coalition with Prussia, Russia, and
England as its principal members. He crushed the Prussian
army at Jena and Auerst[aum]dt Oct. 14; entered Berlin Oct.
27; fought the Russians and Prussians in the drawn battle of
Eylau Feb. 7-8, 1807; defeated the Russians at the battle of
Friedland June 14; and compelled both Russia and Prussia to
conclude peace at Tilsit July 7 and 9, 1807, respectively.
Russia became the ally of France; Prussia was deprived of
nearly half her territory. Napoleon was now, perhaps, at the
height of his power. The imperial title was no empty form. He
was the head of a great confederacy of states. He had
surrounded the imperial throne with subordinate thrones
occupied by members of his own family. His stepson Eug[`e]ne
de Beauharnais was viceroy of the kingdom of Italy in
northern and central Italy; his brother Joseph was king of
Naples in southern Italy; his brother Louis was king of
Holland; his brother Jerome was king of Westphalia; his
brother-in-law Murat was grandduke of Berg. The Confederation
of the Rhine existed by virtue of his protection, and his
troops occupied dismembered Prussia. He directed the policy
of Europe.
England alone, mistress of the seas, appeared to stand
between him and universal dominion. England was safe from
invasion, but she was vulnerable through her commerce.
Napoleon undertook to starve her by closing the ports of the
Continent against her commerce. This policy, known as "the
Continental system," was inaugurated by the Berlin decree in
1806, and was extended by the Milan decree in 1807. To
further this policy he resolved to seize the maritime states
of Portugal and Spain. His armies expelled the house of
Braganza from Portugal, and Nov. 30, 1807, the French entered
Lisbon. Under pretense of guarding the coast against the
English, he quartered 80,000 troops in Spain, then in 1808
enticed Ferdinand VII. and his father Charles IV. (who had
recently abdicated) to Bayonne, extorted from both a
renunciation of their claims, and placed his brother Joseph
on the Spanish throne. An uprising of the Spaniards took
place, followed by a popular insurrection in Portugal,
movements which found response in Germany. The seizure of
Spain and Portugal proved in the end a fatal error. The war
which it kindled, known as the Peninsular war, drained him of
his resources and placed an enemy in his rear when northern
Europe rose against him in 1813. The English in 1808 landed
an army in Portugal, whence they expelled the French, and
penetrated into Spain. Napoleon, securing himself against
Austria by a closer alliance with the czar Alexander at
Erfurt (concluded Oct. 12, 1808), hastened in person to
Spain. With 250,000 men, drove out the English, and entered
Madrid (Dec. 4, 1808). He was recalled by the threatening
attitude of Austria, against which he precipitated war in
April, 1809. He occupied Vienna (May 13), was defeated by the
archduke Charles at Aspern and Essling (May 21-22), defeated
the archduke at Wagram (July 5-6), and concluded the peace of
Sch["o]nbrunn Oct. 14, 1809. He divorced Josephine Dec. 16,
1809, and married Maria Louisa of Austria March 11 (April 2),
1810. He annexed the Papal States in 1809 (the Pope being
carried prisoner to France), and Holland in 1810. The refusal
of Alexander to carry out strictly the Continental system,
which Napoleon himself evaded by the sale of licenses,
brought on war with Russia. He crossed the Niemen June 24,
1812; gained the victory of Borodino Sept. 7; and occupied
Moscow Sept. 14. His proffer of truce was rejected by the
Russians, and he was forced by the approach of winter to
begin a retreat (Oct. 19). He was overtaken by the winter,
and his army dwindled before the cold, hunger, and the enemy.
He left the army in command of Murat Dec. 4, and hastened to
Paris. Murat recrossed the Niemen Dec. 13, with 100,000 men),
the remnant of the Grand Army of 600,000 veterans. The loss
sustained by Napoleon in this campaign encouraged the
defection of Prussia, which formed an alliance with Russia at
Kalisch Feb. 28, 1813. Napoleon defeated the Russians and
Prussians at L["u]tzen May 2, and at Bautzen May 20-21.
Austria declared war Aug. 12, and Napoleon presently found
himself opposed by a coalition of Russia, England, Sweden,
Prussia, and Austria, of which the first three had been
united since the previous year. He won his last great victory
at Dresden Aug. 26-27, and lost the decisive battles of
Leipsic (Oct. 16, 18, and 19), Laon (March 9-10, 1814), and
Arcis-sur-Aube (March 20-21). On March 31 the Allies entered
Paris. He was compelled to abdicate at Fontainebleau April
11, but was allowed to retain the title of emperor, and
received the island of Elba as a sovereign principality, and
an aunual income of 2,000,000 francs. He arrived in Elba May
4. The Congress of Vienna convened in Sept., 1814, for the
purpose of restoring and regulating the relations between the
powers disturbed by Napoleon. Encouraged by the quarrels
which arose at the Congress between the Allies, Napoleon left
Elba Feb. 26, 1816; landed at Cannes March 1; and entered
Paris March 20, the troops sent against him, including Ney
with his corps, having joined his standard. At the return of
Napoleon, the Allies again took the field. He was finally
overthrown at Waterloo June 18, 1815, and the Allies entered
Paris a second time July 7. After futile attempts to escape
to America, he surrendered himself to the British admiral
Hotham at Rochefort July 16. By a unanimous resolve of the
Allies he was transported as prisoner of war to St. Helena,
where he arrived on Oct. 16, 1815, and where he was detained
the rest of his life.

Note: The spelling Buonaparte was used by Napoleon's father,
and by Napoleon himself down to 1796, although the
spelling Bonaparte occurs in early Italian documents.
Aug. 15, 1769, is the commonly accepted date of
Napoleon's birth, and Jan. 7, 1768 that of the birth of
his brother Joseph. It has been said, but without good
reason, that these dates were interchanged at the time
of Napoleon's admission to the military school of
Brienne in 1779, no candidate being eligible after 10
years of age.
--Century Dict. 1906


Napoleon \Na*po"le*on\, n. [From the Emperor Napoleon 1.]
1. A French gold coin of twenty francs, no longer minted or
circulated. It bore the portrait of Napoleon I. or
Napoleon III.
[1913 Webster PJC]

2. (Card Playing)
(a) A game in which each player holds five cards, the
eldest hand stating the number of tricks he will bid
to take, any subsequent player having the right to
overbid him or a previous bidder, the highest bidder
naming the trump and winning a number of points equal
to his bid if he makes so many tricks, or losing the
same number of points if he fails to make them.
(b) A bid to take five tricks at napoleon. It is
ordinarily the highest bid; but sometimes bids are
allowed of wellington, or of blucher, to take five
tricks, or pay double, or treble, if unsuccessful.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

3. A Napoleon gun.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

4. A kind of top boot of the middle of the 19th century.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

5. A shape and size of cigar. It is about seven inches long.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

6. a puff pastry confection, usually layered, with a filling
of custard or cream, or sometimes jelly.
[PJC]

Napoleon, MO -- U.S. city in Missouri
Population (2000): 208
Housing Units (2000): 99
Land area (2000): 1.744031 sq. miles (4.517019 sq. km)
Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
Total area (2000): 1.744031 sq. miles (4.517019 sq. km)
FIPS code: 51140
Located within: Missouri (MO), FIPS 29
Location: 39.129800 N, 94.072099 W
ZIP Codes (1990): 64074
Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
Headwords:
Napoleon, MO
Napoleon


Napoleon, ND -- U.S. city in North Dakota
Population (2000): 857
Housing Units (2000): 420
Land area (2000): 1.389435 sq. miles (3.598620 sq. km)
Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
Total area (2000): 1.389435 sq. miles (3.598620 sq. km)
FIPS code: 55420
Located within: North Dakota (ND), FIPS 38
Location: 46.504657 N, 99.766979 W
ZIP Codes (1990): 58561
Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
Headwords:
Napoleon, ND
Napoleon


Napoleon, OH -- U.S. city in Ohio
Population (2000): 9318
Housing Units (2000): 4066
Land area (2000): 5.586107 sq. miles (14.467949 sq. km)
Water area (2000): 0.382204 sq. miles (0.989905 sq. km)
Total area (2000): 5.968311 sq. miles (15.457854 sq. km)
FIPS code: 53550
Located within: Ohio (OH), FIPS 39
Location: 41.392028 N, 84.126648 W
ZIP Codes (1990): 43545
Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
Headwords:
Napoleon, OH
Napoleon


Napoleon, IN -- U.S. town in Indiana
Population (2000): 238
Housing Units (2000): 103
Land area (2000): 0.187975 sq. miles (0.486854 sq. km)
Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
Total area (2000): 0.187975 sq. miles (0.486854 sq. km)
FIPS code: 52002
Located within: Indiana (IN), FIPS 18
Location: 39.204250 N, 85.328659 W
ZIP Codes (1990):
Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
Headwords:
Napoleon, IN
Napoleon


Napoleon, MI -- U.S. Census Designated Place in Michigan
Population (2000): 1254
Housing Units (2000): 498
Land area (2000): 2.653725 sq. miles (6.873115 sq. km)
Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km)
Total area (2000): 2.653725 sq. miles (6.873115 sq. km)
FIPS code: 56620
Located within: Michigan (MI), FIPS 26
Location: 42.166088 N, 84.247065 W
ZIP Codes (1990):
Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs.
Headwords:
Napoleon, MI
Napoleon

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