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Java    音標拼音: [dʒ'ɑvə]


n 1: an island in Indonesia to the south of Borneo; one of the
world's most densely populated regions
2: a beverage consisting of an infusion of ground coffee beans;
"he ordered a cup of coffee" [synonym: {coffee}, {java}]
3: a platform-independent object-oriented programming language

Java \Ja"va\ (j[aum]"v[.a]), n.
1. One of the islands of the Malay Archipelago belonging to
the Netherlands.
[1913 Webster]

2. Java coffee, a kind of coffee brought from Java.
[1913 Webster]

3. (Computers) [all capitals] an object-oriented computer
programming language, derived largely from {C}, used
widely for design and display of web pages on the
world-wide web. It is an interpreted language, and has
been suggested as a platform-independent code to allow
execution of the same progam under multiple operating
systems without recompiling. The language is still (1997)
under active development, and is evolving.

{Java cat} (Zool.), the musang.

{Java sparrow} (Zool.), a species of finch ({Padda
oryzivora}), native of Java, but very commonly kept as a
cage bird; -- called also {ricebird}, and {paddy bird}. In
the male the upper parts are glaucous gray, the head and
tail black, the under parts delicate rose, and the cheeks
white. The bill is large and red. A white variety is also
kept as a cage bird.
[1913 Webster]

higher programming language \higher programming language\ n.
A computer programming language with an instruction set
allowing one instruction to code for several assembly
language instructions.

Note: The aggregation of several assembly-language
instructions into one instruction allows much greater
efficiency in writing computer programs. Most programs
are now written in some higher programming language,
such as {BASIC}, {FORTRAN}, {COBOL}, {C}, {C},
{PROLOG}, or {JAVA}.

(After the Indonesian
island, a source of {programming fluid}) A simple,
{object-oriented}, {distributed}, {interpreted}, robust,
secure, {architecture-neutral}, {portable}, {multithreaded},
dynamic, buzzword-compliant, general-purpose programming
language developed by {Sun Microsystems} in the early 1990s
(initially for set-top television controllers) and released
to the public in 1995.

Java first became popular as the earliest portable dynamic
client-side content for the {World-Wide Web} in the form of
{platform}-independent {Java applets}. In the late 1990s and
into the 2000s it also became very popular on the server side,
where an entire set of {APIs} defines the {J2EE}.

Java is both a set of public specifications (controlled by
{Sun Microsystems} through the {JCP}) and a series of
implementations of those specifications.

Java is syntactially similar to {C} without user-definable
{operator overloading}, (though it does have {method}
overloading), without {multiple inheritance} and extensive
automatic {coercions}. It has automatic {garbage collection}.
Java extends {C}'s {object-oriented} facilities with those
of {Objective C} for {dynamic method resolution}.

Whereas programs in C and similar languages are compiled and
linked to platform-specific binary executables, Java programs
are typically compiled to portable {architecture-neutral}
{bytecode} ".class" files, which are run using a {Java Virtual
Machine}. The JVM is also called an {interpreter}, though it
is more correct to say that it uses {Just-In-Time Compilation}
to convert the {bytecode} into {native} {machine code},
yielding greater efficiency than most interpreted languages,
rivalling C for many long-running, non-GUI applications.
The run-time system is typically written in {POSIX}-compliant
{ANSI C} or {C}. Some implementations allow Java class
files to be translated into {native} {machine code} during or
after compilation.

The Java compiler and {linker} both enforce {strong type
checking} - procedures must be explicitly typed. Java
aids in the creation of {virus}-free, tamper-free systems
with {authentication} based on {public-key encryption}.

Java has an extensive library of routines for all kinds of
programming tasks, rivalling that of other languages. For
example, the {java.net} package supports {TCP/IP} {protocols}
like {HTTP} and {FTP}. Java applications can access objects
across the {Internet} via {URLs} almost as easily as on the
local {file system}. There are also capabilities for several
types of distributed applications.

The Java {GUI} libraries provide portable interfaces. For
example, there is an abstract Window class and implementations
of it for {Unix}, {Microsoft Windows} and the {Macintosh}.
The {java.awt} and {javax.swing} classes can be used either in
web-based {Applets} or in {client-side applications} or
{desktop applications}.

There are also packages for developing {XML} applications,
{web services}, {servlets} and other web applications,
{security}, date and time calculations and I/O formatting,
database ({JDBC}), and many others.

Java is not related to {JavaScript} despite the name.


{Usenet} newsgroup: {news:comp.lang.java}.


Java An object-oriented language originally developed at Sun by James
Gosling (and known by the nameOak”) with the intention of
being the successor to C (the project was however
originally sold to Sun as an embedded language for use in set-top boxes).
After the great Internet explosion of 1993-1994, Java was hacked into a
byte-interpreted language and became the focus of a relentless hype
campaign by Sun, which touted it as the new language of choice for
distributed applications.Java is indeed a stronger and cleaner design than C and has been
embraced by many in the hacker communitybut it has been a
considerable source of frustration to many others, for reasons ranging from
uneven support on different Web browser platforms, performance issues, and
some notorious deficiencies in some of the standard toolkits (AWT in
particular). Microsoft's determined attempts to
corrupt the language (which it rightly sees as a threat to its OS monopoly)
have not helped. As of 2003, these issues are still in the process of
being resolved.Despite many attractive features and a good design, it is difficult
to find people willing to praise Java who have tried to implement a
complex, real-world system with it (but to be fair it is early days yet,
and no other language has ever been forced to spend its childhood under the
limelight the way Java has). On the other hand, Java has already been a
big win in academic circles, where it has taken the
place of Pascal as the preferred tool for teaching
the basics of good programming to the next generation of hackers.

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