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enzymes    音標拼音: ['ɛnz,ɑɪmz]
n. 酵素

酵素

Ferment \Fer"ment\, n. [L. fermentum ferment (in senses 1 & 2),
perh. for fervimentum, fr. fervere to be boiling hot, boil,
ferment: cf. F. ferment. Cf. 1st {Barm}, {Fervent}.]
1. That which causes fermentation, as yeast, barm, or
fermenting beer.
[1913 Webster]

Note: Ferments are of two kinds: ({a}) Formed or organized
ferments. ({b}) Unorganized or structureless ferments.
The latter are now called {enzymes} and were formerly
called {soluble ferments} or {chemical ferments}.
Ferments of the first class are as a rule simple
microscopic vegetable organisms, and the fermentations
which they engender are due to their growth and
development; as, the {acetic ferment}, the {butyric
ferment}, etc. See {Fermentation}. Ferments of the
second class, on the other hand, are chemical
substances; as a rule they are proteins soluble in
glycerin and precipitated by alcohol. In action they
are catalytic and, mainly, hydrolytic. Good examples
are pepsin of the dastric juice, ptyalin of the salvia,
and disease of malt. Before 1960 the term "ferment" to
mean "enzyme" fell out of use. Enzymes are now known to
be {globular protein}s, capable of catalyzing a wide
variety of chemical reactions, not merely hydrolytic.
The full set of enzymes causing production of ethyl
alcohol from sugar has been identified and individually
purified and studied. See {enzyme}.
[1913 Webster PJC]

2. Intestine motion; heat; tumult; agitation.
[1913 Webster]

Subdue and cool the ferment of desire. --Rogers.
[1913 Webster]

the nation is in a ferment. --Walpole.
[1913 Webster]

3. A gentle internal motion of the constituent parts of a
fluid; fermentation. [R.]
[1913 Webster]

Down to the lowest lees the ferment ran. --Thomson.
[1913 Webster]

{ferment oils}, volatile oils produced by the fermentation of
plants, and not originally contained in them. These were
the quintessences of the alchemists. --Ure.
[1913 Webster]

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